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EYB_DPScheck_dps ATEM114 11/11/2011 12:30 Page 2
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EYB_DPScheck_dps ATEM114 11/11/2011 12:30 Page 3
Testified: the importance of rigorous engine assessment 4
CFM’s LEAP into the future 12
Engine technology and the environmental trade-off 18
Reducing engine nacelle noise 26
GP7200 update 32
Hydrodynamic seals 38
Advances in thermal barrier coatings 42
Investing in commercial aircraft engines 48
Branching out into engine leasing 56
Engine leasing over the next decade 62
Trends in the engine MRO business 68
The secret to minimising engine maintenance costs 76
Engine teardown 80
Streamlining V2500 maintenance 86
Moving into CF6-80 maintenance 90
Regional engine maintenance in Portugal 94
Staying in gear — gear tooth repair 100
Retaining engine expertise after outsourcing 104
Glowing solvent — flourescent penetrant inspection 108
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide 112
APU overhaul directory — worldwide 123
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide 127
Directory of commercial turboprops 136
Directory of commercial turbofans 138
C O N T E N T S
ENGINE YEARBOOK 2012
EDITOR
Alex Derber: aderber@ubmaviation.com
STAFF WRITERS
Jason Holland: jason.holland@ubmaviation.com
Joanne Perry: joanne.perry@ubmaviation.com
PRODUCTION MANAGER
Phil Hine: Phil.Hine@ubmaviation.com
E-EDITOR & CIRCULATION MANAGER
Paul Canessa: Paul.Canessa@ubmaviation.com
INTERNATIONAL MEDIA SALES MANAGER
Alan Samuel: Alan.Samuel@ubmaviation.com
PUBLISHER & SALES DIRECTOR
Simon Barker: Simon.Barker@ubmaviation.com
GROUP PUBLISHER
Anthony Smith: Anthony.Smith@ubmaviation.com
The Engine Yearbook is published annually, each November, by
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EYB2011_TOC_EYB2012TOC_2 03/11/2011 15:43 Page 1
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4 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Testified: the importance of
rigorous engine assessment
Engine testing, whether during manufacturing or
maintenance, must cut no corners in order to prevent
potentially disastrous mid-flight failures. Joanne Perry
talks to engine manufacturers, MROs and test
equipment providers to find out the latest trends.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 09:41 Page 4
5 The Engine Yearbook 2012
A
n aircraft engine exploding mid-flight is a
nightmare scenario perhaps second only
to a terrorist atrocity. No one would ever
dispute the importance of an aircraft’s engines
to safe flight, but it takes a near-catastrophe to
really bring the message home. In March,
2011, the European Aviation Safety Agency
(EASA) declared that operators could cease the
engine part inspections which were mandated
after the uncontained failure of a Rolls-Royce
Trent 900 engine on a Qantas Airways A380
flight in November 2010.
The Australian Transport Safety Bureau
(ATSB) had found that the explosion was
caused by fatigue cracking in a feed pipe, which
led to an oil leak. The ATSB concluded that the
pipe had been thinned by misaligned counter-
boring. Rolls-Royce and Qantas released finan-
cial results in February this year showing costs
of £56m and £34m respectively. Qantas
expects the damage to its business ultimately
to total around £50m and may initiate legal
action against Rolls-Royce if a settlement is not
reached.
The November incident, which involved no
loss of life, illustrates the business impact of
engine failure: disruption costs for operators;
investigation, withdrawal-from-service and
replacement costs plus compensation claims
for the manufacturer; and potential loss of
future business to rivals for both operator and
manufacturer due to damaged reputations .
In light of the knock-on effects of engine
problems, it is vital that engine testing is thor-
ough during both the manufacturing process
and subsequent maintenance. Nor is engine
testing limited to safety concerns; manufactur-
ers and operators must adhere to increasingly
stringent rules on environmental and noise pol-
lution. These considerations factor into three
types of engine testing: OEM engine develop-
ment and production testing; MRO return-to-
service testing; and dedicated component test-
ing.
In the United States, the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) issues Federal Aviation
Regulations (FAR), which are mirrored in Europe
by the edicts of the Joint Aviation Authorities
(JAA) and, since 2002, EASA. An agreement
between the European Union and the US
announced on March 15, 2011, will see further
regulatory harmonisation from May 1 this year.
The main FARs relating to engine health are:
FAR 33.65 Surge and Stall Characteristics; FAR
33.68 Induction System Icing; FAR 33.77 Bird
Ingestion and Water Ingestion; FAR 33.83
Engine Vibration; FAR 33.87 Engine Endurance
Test; and FAR 33.88 Over Temperature Test.
The surge and stall characteristics of an engine
are tested by subjecting the engines to high
crosswinds. To assess stalling risk in snow or
ice, engines are sprayed with water at subzero
temperatures. For FAR 33.77, engines must
demonstrate the ability to survive a bird strike
or a four per cent intake of water in the airflow.
The performance of engine parts under vibra-
tion is measured over the full operational
range, including 105 per cent of OEM-specified
maximum speed. The engine endurance test
involves 150 hours of assessment, including
45 hours at continuous thrust and 18.75 hours
at rated take-off thrust. During the over tem-
perature test, exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
limits are exceeded by 75F (24°C) for a mini-
mum of five minutes.
Engines are tested on indoor and outdoor
stands as well as when integrated into flying
test beds. For development engines, OEMs
conduct between four and six months of ground
testing on stands before testbed testing.
Ground testing involves operation of the
engines to full power and the running of
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 09:41 Page 5
6 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine testing is not limited to
safety concerns; manufacturers
and operators must adhere to
increasingly stringent rules on
environmental and noise
pollution.
GE’s newest flying testbed, with an older testbed in the background.
water/hail, bird ingestion, endurance, emis-
sions and blade out testing, the last of which
ensures that an engine can survive the loss of
a blade. Flying testbed testing consists of run-
ning the engine while it is attached to an air-
frame which has been modified to
accommodate experimental engines.
GE Aviation announced in March this year
the acquisition of a new flying testbed to
replace its existing facility. The $60m invest-
ment at Victorville, California, will help GE to
test the next generation of engines, initially
focusing on the LEAP-X. This will complement
ground testing at GE’s Peebles facility in Ohio.
Deborah Case, media relations manager, says:
“The newer aircraft will expand the flight per-
formance envelope, offering increased range
and payload, avionics that will allow the aircraft
to talk with the newer engines and a longer
flight test (15 hours versus the current eight to
nine hours). So many advantages will be had
with the newer aircraft.”
Additional testing is conducted by aircraft
manufacturers during an aircraft’s progress
towards first flight. For example, at the begin-
ning of March Boeing announced the comple-
tion of the first engine runs for the 747-8
Intercontinental. During these tests, which
lasted nearly three hours, the engines were run
at various power settings while basic systems
checks were conducted, along with vibration
monitoring. The shutdown logic was assessed
during power down at the end of the test, fol-
lowed by inspection and a technical review prior
to an eventual restart of the engines.
Beyond the OEMs
The OEMs set requirements for MRO engine
testing, issuing engine test manuals. This form
of testing is the most common, as it supports
the continued operation of the worldwide fleet.
During deep maintenance activities, engines
are removed from the aircraft and run in special
facilities. Power and fuel efficiency are
checked, along with auxiliary systems support-
ing anti-icing capability and cabin air-condition-
ing. Safety assessment also takes place to
validate system redundancy, including safe
modes. Test facility design thus needs to allow
the control and monitoring of a wide range of
parameters such as power, temperature, pres-
sure, vibration, speed, fuel flow and air flow —
whilst enabling air supply and exhaust removal.
Business manager Nick Smith from test
facility provider IAC Global Aviation, which has
been in business for more than 60 years,
explains that a further challenge is the man-
agement of the immense noise of an engine
under testing, which he describes as the
“Achilles heel” of the process.
Smith agrees with SR Technics’ head of
engine testing Andreas Jost that there is also
pressure to reduce test times, with schedules
being set by the OEMs. IAC promotes opera-
tional efficiencies by using multiple engine cra-
dles to allow the dressing of engines prior to
loading onto test stands. Smith says that com-
puterised control and instrumentation also
help by allowing faster data acquisition and
analysis. Many MROs also offer quick engine
change (QEC) capability. Jost says that a con-
tinual focus on improving turnaround times
(TATs) has enabled SR Technics to reduce aver-
age heavy shop visits by 20 days to 55 days for
CFM engines, and by 28 days to 66 days for
Pratt & Whitney engines. To this end, the com-
pany has introduced T-005 core balancing,
which means that N2 vibrations on CFM56-7B
engines can be balanced without removal of
the core.
Companies such as Schenck and New York-
based MTI Instruments specialise in trim bal-
ancing and vibration analysis. They provide
equipment which can distinguish between
vibration problems and balance problems;
before embarking on a maintenance solution it
is important to discern whether or not the for-
mer is caused by the latter.
Joining IAC in providing OEMs and MROs
with engine testing equipment, facilities and
associated services are Cenco International,
MDS Aero Support, AneCom and Texas-based
Atec amongst others.
Cenco was founded in 1958 as Central
Engineering Company. The company was then
purchased by Techspace Aero in 2003 to cre-
ate the Safran Group’s Center of Excellence for
Aero Engine Test Cells, Cenco International.
Cenco’s products and services cover all types
of propulsion, from turboshaft engines and aux-
iliary power units (APUs) through the largest
civil turbofans to military turbojets. The com-
pany has a customer list of more than 150 air-
lines, MROs, engine manufacturers and
governmental organisations.
Facilities provided by Cenco include com-
mercial fan and turboshaft test cells and mili-
tary hush houses (noise-suppressing facilities).
Test equipment encompasses thrust stands,
engine adapters which connect engines to test-
beds, engine variants and data acquisition and
control systems (DACS/DAS, the digital part of
the test cell interface).
Last year, the company won two contracts
from Rolls-Royce, one for a production test cell
for the Trent Engine family and a second for a
multi-engine test facility for military turbojets in
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 09:42 Page 6
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EngineLife_210X278_ENGINE YEARBOOK_Mise en page 1 11/10/11 10:58 Page1
8 The Engine Yearbook 2012
A Cenco test cell.
the Middle East. These projects follow the
award in 2008 of a component testing facility
in Germany, again for Rolls-Royce. Cenco
devotes a significant portion of its business to
OEMs but also caters for MROs. Marketing
director Sébastien David says that last year
Cenco won contracts worth over $100m,
despite the difficult economic circumstances
which have seen MROs delaying investments in
new equipment. The past two years have been
“a transitional period” during which the MRO
business has stalled but the OEMs have made
significant investments in new programmes.
David is positive about the current situation:
“Ultimately, Cenco achieved a very good con-
tract booking in 2010 and we are very confi-
dent for 2011.”
SR Technics also noticed a decline in
demand for engine testing: “The market
dropped with a certain delay after the reces-
sion and is now recovering little by little,” says
Jost.
Smith says that the contract postponement
effect was particularly sharp in the business jet
sector, but that “with the upturn [operators] are
now pushing for accelerated construction and
delivery to realise the benefits of their invest-
ment.” IAC designs and builds multi-engine test
cells, providing turnkey packages for turbofans,
turbojets, turboshafts and turboprops as
needed: hush houses; ground run-up pens;
mobile test cells; APU test facilities; and DACS.
Smith describes his company presently as
“busy and successful” and “the best kept
secret” of clients who prefer not to publicise
ongoing developments.
AneCom AeroTest, a “one-stop-shop”
provider of services to the gas turbine industry,
is similarly wary of revealing too much about
current projects, but managing director Edmund
Ahlers says he is looking to developing markets
such as India and China to supplement recent
contracts from more traditional sources. “In
India we have a business relationship already
and we signed a project in December last year
to continue that. We are looking forward to
more projects to come. The main customer
base so far is in Europe but there are other
areas we are looking into.”
AneCom benefits from having a client base
which spreads across a number of industries.
Says Ahlers: “We had a recession in 2009 in
the aerospace industry but fortunately in the
powerplant and industrial gas turbine world
there was a lot more work, so that helped us to
survive.” AneCom focuses on engine compo-
nent development through aerodynamic testing
and found that during the recession many aero-
space OEMs concentrated on protecting their
own employment figures by maximising use of
in-house resources: “They had decided for
some of the projects that we were envisaging
to do the work internally, to employ their own
people, because there was less need for them
in other areas, and we suffered from that as a
supplier.”
AneCom provides turnkey solutions, cover-
ing everything from consultancy through design
and project management to analysis and test-
ing. The company is a relatively young player in
the market, founded in Germany in 2002 as a
spin-off from Rolls-Royce, which is an original
shareholder along with MDS (24.9 per cent and
38.6 per cent respectively). AneCom uses test
facilities previously owned by the manufacturer,
especially those for compressors.
Established in 1985, MDS provides test
facilities for all types and sizes of aero
engines, whether turbofans, military thrust
engines, turbojets, turboprops or APUs. In
2002, the company upgraded the overhaul
facilities of SR Technics, replacing DACS and
engine control systems. Many of the test pro-
cedures are now automated, operating accord-
ing to programmable parameters.
Ahlers is keen to emphasise AneCom’s
independence: “They are only in there to make
sure that this company doesn’t come under the
control of any of their competitors, so they are
not involved in the daily business. They have
given us this in writing and we can deal with any
other customer including their competition.”
The concept from day one was that the share-
holders’ customer networks could be used to
promote AneCom’s services to supplement
their own services. Asked about the outlook for
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 09:42 Page 8
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10 The Engine Yearbook 2012
[During the recession] OEMs
decided to do some projects
internally, to employ their own
people, and we suffered from
that as a supplier.
—Edmund Ahlers, managing
director, AneCom AeroTest
An AneCom compressor testbed.
the future, Ahlers was notably enthusiastic:
“Business is picking up quite a lot in 2010 and
we are very positively looking into the future
now; we have some very good developments as
a company.”
Key trends
When envisioning the future, companies
involved in the engine testing business need to
bear in mind two key trends in the aviation
industry: firstly, increasing engine power and
complexity; and secondly, greater regulatory,
corporate and public pressure for reduced envi-
ronmental pollution – both emissions and
noise.
Of the first issue, David says: “Globally the
trend in turbofan engine design is for higher by-
pass ratio engines. Not only are those engines
far more complex and digitised than their pred-
ecessors, but their aerodynamic characteristics
are far beyond [what went before]. The direct
consequence is that test cells we supplied 20
years ago (up to 10 or 12m in section) cannot
accommodate such powerful engines.” He says
that 14m test cells are becoming more com-
mon, as they can handle engines such as the
GE90, the Trent 900, the GP7200 — and will
be likely to cope with their future variants.
On the topic of digital technology, Case says
that few revelations have occurred since full
authority digital electronic controls (FADEC)
were first used in GE engines in the late
1980s. However, she notes that Boeing’s forth-
coming 787 Dreamliner features electrical sys-
tems on the airframe which were previously
pneumatic or air-powered from the engines.
This has resulted in GE installing discharge
mechanisms for these systems during GEnx
testing. These adaptations have been made to
GE’s test cells in Peebles as well as its current
flying testbed in Victorville.
Interestingly, Smith says that a notable
increase in the power demands on modern
engines originates from on-board systems,
especially those delivering in-flight entertain-
ment.
Mostly it seems to be the test procedures
themselves which have become loaded with
complex information technology. Says Smith:
“The test facilities for engine development
[now] demand far more instrumentation to
analyse characteristics throughout the engine
and supporting systems.” As an example he
points out that IAC has supplied cells with over
5000 channels. David agrees: “Data acquisi-
tion and instrumentation is a very dynamic
business, where many manufacturers regularly
propose interesting new technologies.”
According to Smith, control and monitoring sys-
tems have historically consisted of bespoke
hardware, single source software and various
specialist conditioning units. This meant that
customers were obliged to pay hefty bills for
modifications and upgrades. IAC has
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 09:42 Page 10
11 The Engine Yearbook 2012
responded to this situation by developing an
off-the-shelf control and DACS offering.
Jost sees benefits to digital technology on
the MRO side: “Digital technology has the
advantage that almost all required test parame-
ters are measured by the electronic control of
the engine; only a few additional probes need to
be installed.” However, he warns that the elec-
trical trouble-shooting burden can increase.
For AneCom, the IT sophistication of mod-
ern engine testing lies in the computer aided
design (CAD) of engine components, modelling
and analysis. Ahlers believes this has gener-
ated mixed results: “The complexity of engines
requires less need for testing on the one hand
because the modelling is getting better and the
need for validation has gone down, but on the
other hand the less need the OEM has for test-
ing the more attractive it is to outsource, so for
us it does mean a better perspective in the
future because the tendency for outsourcing
will increase.”
The informational aspect of engine testing
today crosses over into another key issue of
our times: concern over environmental impact.
Ahlers sees business potential in this trend:
“Green technology for future engines requires
some key developments which will need test-
ing. Also, in engine noise investigations there
is still a big need for validation tests where just
models don’t help.”
The engine testing business has some
catching up to do when it comes to innovations
lessening environmental impact, in compari-
son with the constant stream of new engines
from OEMs which claim ever lower fuel burn.
David comments: “Unfortunately, there is not
much that can be done to reduce emissions
due to an engine run, but the shorter the
engine test, the fewer the emissions. This is
the kind of green that our customers appreci-
ate, because optimising the engine testing pro-
cedures means saving fuel as well as the
environment.”
However, Cenco is exploring options such
as recovering energy expended during test-
ing, which is currently untapped. The com-
pany has also developed the first test cell in
the world to receive Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design (LEED) recognition
from the US Green Building Council, for
Shanghai Pratt & Whitney in 2009. Yet much
work remains to be done; this project
focuses on the environmental footprint of the
building itself rather than the activities
within. David describes it as “only a first
step”.
As regards the noise pollution of increasingly
powerful engines, Ahlers is optimistic that inno-
vations designed to reduce noise will involve
new architectures that require significant test-
GE’s wind tunnel in Peebles, Ohio.
ing, because early modelling and analysis is dif-
ficult. Thus, long-term plans by national and
transnational authorities for noise reduction
over the coming years should favour AneCom’s
services. David agrees that the drive for a
lesser noise impact is one of two strong trends
he detects in the business today, alongside per-
petual demand for greater accuracy from OEMs
and operators. Indeed, Smith describes increas-
ingly stringent noise emission regulations as
“the key influence” on IAC. ■
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 09:42 Page 11
12
T
o trace the roots of CFM’s next-generation
LEAP engine, one needs to go back many
years. From a technology perspective, the
engine’s legacy reaches back some 20 years to
the development of the GE90, the powerplant
for the 777 widebody. Around six years ago
CFM began serious efforts to gather input from
perspective customers on what they wanted in
the next generation of powerplants for the sin-
gle-aisle workhorses of tomorrow.
The payoff of that long-term perspective is
an engine that will offer breakthroughs in emis-
sions and fuel efficiency, while maintaining reli-
ability and maintenance costs identical to the
CFM56 family, which has garnered more than
525 million flight hours in nearly 30 years of
airline service.
When CFM executives talk about the LEAP
programme, it’s with the air of confidence that
comes from treading on familiar ground. While
the combinations of technologies represented
in LEAP are new to the CFM product line, devel-
opment, testing and planning for entry into
service are all second nature, with CFM having
been through 21 entries into service and six
major engine certifications on the CFM56 fam-
ily over the last 30 years — each of them on
time, and on specification.
“Technology is about what you have been
doing for the last 15 years to bring yourself to this
The Engine Yearbook 2012
The newest engine from a 36-year partnership between GE and Snecma is on track for
certification in 2014, offering a 15 per cent improvement in fuel efficiency and lower noise and
emissions. It will also hold the line on maintenance cost and reliability. CFM provides an update
on the programme.
CFM’s LEAP into the future
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:33 Page 12
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check_FPA:MRO Ybook 6/8/08 10:41 Page 3
14
point to be ready for success,” says Bill Brown,
general manager for LEAP marketing. “The suc-
cess of the LEAP engine won’t only be determined
between now and entry into service in 2016. It
was also determined between 1995 and 2011. It
wasn’t called LEAP in 1995, but that’s when we
started building it. This is our legacy and track
record of performance. Every technology that’s
going into LEAP is proven,” he adds.
Customer Focus Key to
Development
Technology is only one part of CFM’s
approach to developing LEAP. Another key com-
ponent is a years-long programme of working
with customers to understand their needs —
and to keep those needs at the forefront as
engineers developed the LEAP engine.
“No discussion with a customer starts with,
‘look at our great technology’,” Brown says.
“We have to keep focus on what their needs
are so that technology delivers real benefits
without creating risks in other areas.”
To gain that market insight, CFM conducted
four years of face-to-face meetings, soliciting
input from more than 50 customers, and com-
bined the results with comprehensive surveys
of more than 300 potential stakeholders,
including airlines, lessors, MRO organisations,
appraisers, banks and others. This supple-
mented the single-aisle engine experience
gained over the last 30 years.
The core message of those meetings was
clear: lower fuel burn has become a critical
requirement to operators due to the rise of fuel
costs, but the need for high engine reliability
and low maintenance cost has remained
equally important. For a workhorse fleet, they
clearly want a workhorse engine that will let
them keep their aircraft flying.
CFM also believes the regulatory regime will
only become more challenging in regards to
environmental performance, particularly for
emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX), a
byproduct of combustion. Since aviation is the
only industry releasing NOX at altitude, it is par-
ticularly vulnerable to regulation and penalty.
And improving NOX emissions will ultimately
reduce cost to operators if, as anticipated, reg-
ulatory schemes begin to tax total NOx emis-
sions.
As a consequence, LEAP has four guiding
principles with ambitious goals for each. The
programme is designed to provide: 15 percent
better fuel efficiency; reliability and mainte-
nance costs equivalent to the current CFM56
family; NOX emissions that are 50 per cent
lower than ICAO CAEP/6 protocols; and noise
levels that are 10-15dB lower than Stage 4
requirements, depending on the application.
To date, the approach has yielded three
important programme wins. Firstly, the LEAP-1C
was selected as the sole Western powerplant
to provide a complete integrated propulsion
The Engine Yearbook 2012
We have to focus on customer
needs so that technology
delivers real benefits without
creating risks in other areas.
—Bill Brown, general manager
for LEAP marketing, CFM
LEAP-X TAPS 2 sector test.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:33 Page 14
Project1:Layout 1 20/8/10 10:49 Page 1
16
system for the Chinese COMAC C919 150-
seater, due to enter service in 2016. Then, in
December 2010, Airbus announced that LEAP
would be available on the A320neo. The com-
pany has received orders for more than 900
LEAP-1A engines to date and they will enter
service in 2016. Most recently, in August
2011, the LEAP-1B was chosen as the sole
powerplant for the Boeing’s re-engined narrow-
body, the 737MAX, set to enter service in
2017. There have already been nearly 1,000
engines orders for that aircraft.
Legacy of Technology
“It takes multiple technologies to meet mul-
tiple objectives,” Brown says. Examples
includes the composite fan blades that keep
LEAP light, 3D aerodynamics for efficiency,
advanced cooling for high-pressure turbine
durability, and asecond-generation lean burn
combustor to optimise emissions performance.
“Those technologies will give the LEAP fan
efficiency, core efficiency, low emissions and
low maintenance cost. All of these benefits
with CFM’s legendary reliability. No single tech-
nology or system can deliver all that,” says
Brown.
The CFM 50/50 partnership between
Snecma General Electric dates back more than
36 years, and was recently extended to at least
2040. The partnership unites two business cul-
tures that allow CFM to leverage the inherent
strengths of both and, Brown maintains, results
in better decision making.
Likewise, the partners are dividing develop-
ment work on LEAP. One of the most aggressive
technologies going into the engine is an all-new
wide-chord composite fan, a first for the single-
aisle segment. For LEAP, the fan will have just
18 blades, half the number on the CFM56-5C,
and 25 per cent fewer than the CFM56-7B.
Building the fan required development of
new resin transfer molding production
processes, a development that has been under-
way at Snecma for more than 10 years. The fan
has been undergoing ground tests since early
2009, including a 5,000 cycle endurance test,
blade-out tests, bird strike testing, and
acoustics analysis, validating the design.
The composite fan and containment case
pay off in terms of weight savings. CFM proj-
ects LEAP will be 1,000lbs lighter per shipset
than the same size fan and case made using
metal. And because of the experience gained
with wide-chord composites on the GE90, they
are confident about durability as well: to date,
there have been no airworthiness directives on
GE90 fan blades and in the course of nearly 25
million flight hours over 15 years, only a few
blades have been taken out of service.
The engine core draws heavily on GE’s
expertise developed for the GE90 and GEnx
programmes, with compressor, combustor and
coatings technology all being pulled forward
into LEAP to improve performance while main-
taining reliability.
CFM has completed testing on eCore
Demonstrator 1, and was scheduled to begin
testing of eCore Demonstrator 2 by mid-2011,
part of what Brown describes as a “steady
drumbeat” of core testing that includes six
core tests for the GE90, three more for the
GEnx, and three core tests for LEAP.
Some of the weight savings from the com-
posite fan are absorbed by a stiff, double-wall
compressor case, which is designed to prevent
the core from flexing due to torque induced at
rotation by the larger fan, thereby reducing risk
of blade rub and incumbent performance degra-
dation.
The turbine blades themselves are
designed using advanced three-dimensional (3-
D) aerodynamics to optimise performance. The
first five compressor stages are a blisk (bladed
disks) design, which minimises air leaks by
eliminating dovetail joints between blades and
disks. In total, the 10-stages of compression
create a 22:1 pressure ratio, which CFM claims
is the best in the industry.
The Twin Annular Pre-Mixing Swirler (TAPS)
fuel nozzles, developed first as part of CFM’s
Project TECH56 and soon to enter service on
the GEnx, pre-mix air and fuel and enable the
engine to run at lower peak temperatures with
longer residence time, key factors in reducing
NOX emissions.
The two-stage high-pressure turbine (HPT)
incorporates 3-D aerodynamic design,
advanced coatings, and GE-developed casting
The Engine Yearbook 2012
CFM is employing designs and
lessons learned from the GE90
and GEnx programmes to meet
its reliability targets, and to
enable the engine to retain
performance over its service
life.”
LEAP-X RTM fan on test rig.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:33 Page 16
17
technology to improve cooling, the key to max-
imising life of the blades. The LEAP HPT has
undergone some 4,500 hours of component
tests, giving CFM assurance that the core can
run with higher thermal efficiency than the
CFM56-5B core, but at equal blade tempera-
tures – a key driver in hitting the goal of having
LEAP maintenance costs equal those of the
CFM56.
Maintenance and reliability
Maintenance cost is a key component of the
LEAP programme for a variety of reasons. First
and foremost, customer exercises indicated
that maintenance and reliability were a major
concern of airlines and other stakeholders. And
with the increasing prevalence of fixed-cost-per-
hour operating agreements, CFM’s economic
case for LEAP is dependent on creating a reli-
able, durable engine with predictable costs
right from the start.
An extensive test programme leading up to
entry into service in 2016 is key to validating
those costs. The LEAP programme calls for run-
ning a total of 18,000 endurance cycles prior
to entry-into-service, so that launch customers
receive a totally mature product.
In addition to the coatings and combustion
technology, CFM is employing other designs
and lessons learned from the GE90 and GEnx
programmes to meet its reliability targets, and
to enable the engine to retain performance
over its service life.
For example, the core is designed to be
‘FOD (foreign object damage) free’, with several
techniques employed to keep particulate mat-
ter out of the core, reducing blade erosion so
that performance is maintained over the life of
the engine. The wide-chord fan blades cen-
trifuge a lot of particles out of the core flow,
expelling them with bypass air.
CFM executives believe they have a historic
advantage over their competitors in mainte-
nance cost over a range of aircraft applications
where competing engines are offered to air-
lines, and they are committed to keeping LEAP
maintenance costs similar to existing CFM
costs, which are considered the lowest in the
industry for single-aisle engines.
“History doesn’t prove the future, but it’s a
good indicator,” Brown says. “We have a strong
track record, and we have solid technology and
design going forward. Execution and innovation
are better proven than promised.” ■
The Engine Yearbook 2012
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EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:37 Page 17
18 The Engine Yearbook 2012
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:43 Page 18
19 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Pressure is being exerted from airlines, governments and environmentalists for the biggest
manufacturers to produce the next-generation of engines. But can one be created to fulfil all of the
strict fuel burn, emissions and noise targets set — or will a trade-off have to be made, with a
sacrifice in one area being made in order to gain a more significant improvement in another? Jason
Holland reports.
Engine technology and the
environmental trade-off
T
he world’s engine manufacturers face the
constant challenge of improving technol-
ogy to make more fuel efficient engines.
With single-aisle replacements on the agenda,
if some years away, the race is on to come up
with “game changing” technologies. However,
the companies also face pressure from envi-
ronmentalists to produce engines which reduce
greenhouse gas and other noxious emissions.
Fortunately, reducing fuel burn leads to a con-
current reduction in carbon emissions.
However, such emissions are not the only
environmental challenge. There is also a need
to reduce engine noise — and while proposed
engine architectures such as the open rotor
appear able to reduce emissions significantly,
they also increase noise. “You can build a very
efficient engine in terms of fuel consumption,
but you sacrifice some noise margin,” explains
Chaker Chahrour, executive vice president at
CFM International. “That is where you need to
make the trade-off, taking into account current
regulations as well as evaluating local noise
standards in the areas where customers fly.”
So the real challenge the engine makers are
facing is to find a happy balance between
improving fuel efficiency, reducing carbon emis-
sions and reducing noise.
The question is, can engine technology
improve sufficiently by the time of the single aisle
replacements to achieve this balance? Or will a
trade-off have to be made between emissions
and noise? As a society, simply put, will we have
to choose whether to reduce either emissions or
noise as much as possible whilst sacrificing the
other consideration, or can a compromise be
reached?
The complexity of this issue is evidenced by
the different approaches each engine maker is
taking. As things stand, the two main engine
architectures vying for future market share are
the open rotor and the geared turbofan. The
likes of Pratt & Whitney and MTU Aero Engines
have put their faith firmly in the camp of the
geared turbofan. The PW1000G — set to begin
production in 2013 — is the first engine to use
an architecture which the manufacturers expect
can ultimately realise fuel burn reductions of 25
per cent or more by the next decade, in addition
to the feted noise reductions.
Meanwhile, CFM International and Rolls-
Royce, while working on advanced turbofans
now — see the open rotor as the most likely
architecture of the future, because of its poten-
tial to reduce fuel burn and thus harmful emis-
sions. CFM’s Chahrour accepts that an “open
rotor will never be as quiet as a turbofan”, but
the company believes it can achieve Chapter 4
levels by the time of the first launch.
You might think that noise is something we
can learn to live with — within reason — if it
meant reducing emissions and cutting down
aviation’s harmful impact on the environment.
However, this may not be an argument that
holds much weight with someone living on a
flight path.
It is a point eloquently made by Dr Erich
Steinhardt, senior vice president technology,
MTU Aero Engines, who considers the issue of
noise to be just as important as carbon emis-
sions. “The growth in the global population
and increasing economic wealth will generate
strong air traffic growth. In addition new mega
cities will arise so that more and more people
will live in the neighbourhood of airports,” he
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:43 Page 19
20
says. “As these residents are mainly affected
by noise emissions, having quieter air traffic
is one of the most important challenges. Even
today the number of airports regulating noise
emissions is growing and the associated reg-
ulations, and thus noise, has become an
important economic factor for airlines and air-
ports. Therefore no trade is possible — both
reduced noise and reduced CO2 emissions
are necessary.”
This unwillingness to make a trade is a sen-
timent echoed by the other manufacturers. “In
this industry, you can’t just pick one element
on which you choose to focus — you have to
take a balanced approach that will provide the
best overall solution,” says Chahrour. But at
some point, priority has to be given to one or
another consideration, even if a healthy bal-
ance is ultimately sought.
The major manufacturers are therefore
investing billions of dollars into research to
come up with a new generation of engines that
will power the single aisle replacements, which
are still likely to be a decade or more away.
CFM parent companies GE and Snecma, for
example, spend $2bn annually on research and
development. Of course, it will take decades
after entry-into-service of these new aircraft for
the current and previous generations to phase
out, so this only increases the environmental
pressure to get the new designs ‘right’. The
A320neo will go some way toward satisfying
the airlines’ and environmentalists’ demands
in the interim; however Boeing is intent on
focusing on a full-scale replacement rather
than bringing out an upgraded 737. It is a high-
stakes game which is reflected in the strate-
gies of the engine manufacturers as they seek
The Engine Yearbook 2012
to get their engines on board the new aircraft
programmes.
CFM looks to the open rotor
CFM’s advanced new turbofan engine, LEAP-X,
has been selected to power the A320neo as well
as the new COMAC C919. It has been designed
to use up to 15 per cent less fuel and emit 16
per cent fewer CO2 emissions compared to the
manufacturer’s CFM56 engine. It will also see a
50 per cent margin improvement in NOx emis-
sions compared to ICAO’s current CAEP/6
requirements and 10–15dB lower noise com-
pared to current Chapter 4 requirements. The
engine utilises a larger fan which will increase the
bypass ratio from today’s 5:1 to more than 10:1.
Among the other technical advances, thermal effi-
ciency will be improved in the core and the
engine’s overall pressure ratio will be increased.
Advanced materials technology will also be
used, particularly in the fan, in order to reduce
weight. Chahrour estimates that the combina-
tion of the 3-D woven resin transfer moulding
fan (RTM) and composite fan case, for exam-
ple, will reduce weight by 1,000 pounds per air-
craft compared to the same size fan built using
titanium or other metals.
While fuel burn was a priority in the engine’s
design phase, it “cannot” be the only one,
according to Chahrour. “Quality, time on wing,
and maintenance costs are very big drivers,” he
states. “Each technology we evaluated must go
through this filter; if a technology is not yet
mature enough to ensure reliability out of the
box, it won’t go in the LEAP-X engine.” The first
full engine will be tested in early 2013, and
engine certification is also scheduled for that
year. Both the C919 and the A320neo are
scheduled for entry into service in 2016.
The engine will provide important savings in
a relatively short period of time as it powers
the upgraded A320, but these will not be suffi-
cient to satisfy environmentalists in the long-
term. CFM recognises that the traditional
turbofan design can only go so far. Its long-term
hope is an engine based on the open rotor
architecture (see box), however, given that
there are still challenges to overcome, the com-
pany’s official line is that this architecture is
merely “one solution” for minimising the envi-
ronmental trade-offs.
Chahrour says the entire gamut of environ-
mental considerations influence the company’s
designs. “Public perception is too varied to try
to accommodate everyone’s preference — what
you are about depends on where you live,” he
says. “That’s why we focus on where global and
local regulations are today, and where we think
they will go.” In terms of overcoming the envi-
ronmental trade-offs, he states: “Today, we
know that we can mitigate some of this; we
One-fifth-scale blades of the open rotor at the NASA wind tunnel.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:43 Page 20
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largest independent engine service provider, combining the benefits of state-of-the-art
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22
have to see what the future brings to determine
whether we can eventually overcome it.”
With the timing of all-new single-aisle aircraft
moving to the right, the company is keenly
aware that the requirements for those aircraft
will be “even more stringent”. At least this gives
it more time to develop open rotor technology.
For the past two years, the company has
been running wind tunnel tests in the US in
conjunction with NASA, as well as in France and
in Russia, with “very good” results. The com-
pany is using flight test data gathered from
GE’s experimental open rotor programme in the
late 1980s. The GE36 or UDF (Unducted Fan),
managed to lower fuel burn significantly — but
the problem of noise could not be overcome.
“While we know the technology is very prom-
ising, delivering as much as a 25 per cent fuel
burn improvement versus today’s best engines,
there are some challenges,” concedes
Chahrour. “Basically, we know how to install a
turbofan, so we can develop it separately from
the airplane and then do joint integration work.
However, the open rotor would have to be
designed in direct collaboration with the air-
framer. You have to look at where to install the
engines to minimise weight and drag.” If an
installation were to be performed incorrectly, it
might negate the entire performance gain. “You
also have to consider maintenance access;
certification requirements; the impact a more
complicated engine will have on reliability; pub-
lic perception; etc. With all of these issues still
to be resolved, we don’t see an open rotor
engine entering service until around the year
2030.”
Pushing and pulling
Rolls-Royce is also pursuing open rotor
designs, with Robert Nuttall, vice president of
strategic marketing at the company, going so
far as to state that such an architecture will
prove to be the only “genuine” game-changer.
In the nearer-term future, the engine maker is
simultaneously developing its ‘Advance2’ two-
shaft and ‘Advance3’ three-shaft turbofans,
both based on the Trent powerplant and sched-
uled for a 2017 or 2018 entry into service.
However, the company believes it can utilise
most of this technology on the open rotor, mak-
ing the transition to the longer-term architec-
ture much easier.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
How do open rotor engines work?
Open rotor technologies offer the potential for
significant reductions in fuel burn and CO2
emissions relative to turbofan engines of equiv-
alent thrust. Higher propulsive efficiencies are
achieved for turbofans by increasing the
bypass ratio through increases in fan diameter
but there is a diminishing return to this
improvement as nacelle diameters and conse-
quently weight and drag increase. Open rotor
engines remove this limitation by operating the
propeller blades without a surrounding nacelle,
thus enabling ultra high bypass ratios to be
achieved. Further improvements in propulsive
efficiency can be gained for open rotor engines
by using a second row of propeller blades rotat-
ing in opposition to the front row to remove the
spin from the column of air to give a more
direct thrust.
source: Rolls-Royce
The open rotor would have to be designed in direct
collaboration with the airframer. You have to look
at where to install the engines to minimise weight
and drag. You also have to consider maintenance
access; certification requirements; the impact a
more complicated engine will have on reliability;
public perception; etc. With all of these issues still
to be resolved, we don’t see an open rotor engine
entering service until around the year 2030.
—Chaker Chahrour, executive vice president, CFM
International
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:43 Page 22
23
The British engine maker is a little more
optimistic than CFM about the timeframe the
open rotor will be available, putting an entry
into service date at 2023-2025, although
Nuttall concedes that this date is determined
more by the need for a new aircraft specifically
designed to be powered by an open rotor, than
by the engine itself.
The bypass ratio of the open rotor engine
will be a staggering 50 to 1. Nuttall says that it
will be about 10 per cent more fuel efficient
than any new advanced turbofan that was
designed for the 2023-25 timeframe. Most
boldly of all, Nuttall claims that the Rolls-Royce
open rotor will be approximately 15 per cent
more fuel-efficient than the 2025 versions of
the LEAP-X or Pratt & Whitney’s PW1000G,
based, he says, on the designs that go into
service in the 2013-2016 timeframe.
The manufacturer is looking at both pusher
and puller configurations for the open rotor. “The
pusher is harder, because the exhaust goes
underneath the blades,” says Nuttall. Because
of this difficulty, the company is investing more
time in working on this design, with Nuttall
regarding the puller configuration as “a sub-set
of the pusher” in terms of design requirement.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
A proof-of-concept open rotor engine is
scheduled to be flight-tested in 2015 on an
Airbus A340, but Nuttall comments that this
engine will still be “a whole programme away”
from an engine ready to go into service. This is
primarily due to the installation challenges
already outlined by CFM’s Chahrour. Three sets
of annual rig tests have already been com-
pleted, which Nuttall says showed the architec-
ture complied with Chapter 4 legislation. The
company will perform a set of rig tests on the
engine’s power gearbox before the middle of
this year, at Kawasaki Heavy Industries’ gear-
box-testing rig facility in Japan, while further rig
tests will be conducted in the third quarter of
this year, testing a “more optimised” design.
The manufacturer is also leading the DREAM
(valiDation of Radical Engine Architecture
systeMs) project, which is seeking to mature
advanced, environmentally-friendly engines util-
ising the skills of 44 partners derived from 13
countries. The programme has a stated target
of reducing specific fuel consumption and CO2
emissions by at least 27 per cent, and commu-
nity noise by 9dB cumulative, compared with the
current Y2000 turbofan engines. Under this
project, new technology is being tested, includ-
ing new mid-frame structures, active and pas-
sive engine systems intended to reduce vibra-
tions, and active turbine control. These
technologies would not only support the devel-
opment of future open rotor engines, but also
more traditional ducted turbofan engines.
Geared turbofan — a balanced
solution?
Pratt & Whitney, meanwhile, is banking its
future on an entirely different engine architec-
ture — the geared turbofan — whose first incar-
nation is set to receive certification next year.
The PurePower PW1000G, like the LEAP-X, has
been selected for the A320neo, in addition to
the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, the Bombardier
CSeries, and the Irkut MC-21. According to the
manufacturer, the engine offers single aisle air-
craft a 16 per cent fuel burn benefit, 20 per
cent lower maintenance costs, a 50 per cent
reduction in emissions relative to today’s most
stringent regulations, and a more than 50 per
cent decrease in noise levels.
The geared turbofan architecture will be
modified and improved as time goes by, provid-
ing “a strong baseline for additional technology
insertion, which will enable further improve-
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EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:44 Page 23
24
ments in engine operating cost over the next
decade,” says Paul Finklestein, VP marketing at
Pratt & Whitney. This is perhaps the key point:
as technology advances, we will see even bet-
ter performance in future applications, just as
traditional turbofans have improved over time.
“A consequent improvement of the current
geared turbofan will be available around 2020
supporting new airplanes by Boeing and at a
later date Airbus,” confirms MTU’s Steinhardt.
“Improvements will come from new technolo-
gies enhancing component efficiencies as well
as introducing new materials.”
The geared turbofan is a radical new con-
cept. “PurePower engines with geared turbofan
architecture enable an optimised solution
across all thrust ranges,” comments
Finklestein. “With our scaleable core, we can
The Engine Yearbook 2012
The Pratt & Whitney PurePower PW1524G geared turbofan is tested at the company's West Palm
Beach, Florida, location.
select the optimum fan diameter and gear ratio
to maximise the overall engine efficiency and
bypass ratio.” He says the reason that conven-
tional turbofans have to make compromises to
increase performance is “simple”, and that
PurePower has overcome these limitations.
“For best performance and lowest noise, the
fan blades have to turn relatively slowly. For
best performance, the turbines that drive them
need to turn relatively fast. This incompatibility
is solved not by compromising the speed of
both, but rather by utilising a gear to allow each
to turn at optimum speeds.”
Finklestein says the geared turbofan is
demonstrating 16 per cent better fuel burn
today, and the architecture “will realise fuel
burn reductions of 25 per cent or more by the
next decade” — matching CFM’s estimates for
the open rotor, but with a noise reduction
advantage. For Pratt & Whitney, therefore, the
environmental trade off between noise and
emissions does not exist; it has already over-
come it. Finklestein says the company was not
willing to “sacrifice today’s noise performance
for better fuel burn”. Instead, he makes this
bold claim: “The PurePower PW1000G engine
is a complete and balanced solution to signifi-
cantly improve fuel burn, while improving
engine noise, environmental emissions, and
operating cost — without the tradeoffs that
come with other engine concepts.”
Finklestein is also sceptical about the open
rotor concept, and is not sure that such an
engine will ever see the light of day. “From a
theoretical performance perspective, they are
enticing, but when one actually installs them on
an aircraft, there are tremendous performance
and noise disadvantages,” he states. “We
don’t believe that communities that have
invested so much time and energy in lowering
noise to today’s levels will be satisfied with the
status quo — or worse.” He is also quick to
point out that while the open rotor is still only
“on the drawing board, our engine is real, is in
development, and has been flight tested”.
MTU’s Steinhardt is equally optimistic about
the future. “The geared turbofan engines follow
a family approach; the engines as well as the
high pressure compressor and high speed low
turbines will meet aggressive design targets at
low risks,” he states. “Therefore, the geared
turbofan not only is the better technical con-
cept but has an advantage in time and maturity
by at least two years over the competitor.”
Conclusion
While CFM and Rolls-Royce believe that the
open rotor will provide more fuel efficiency
than the geared turbofan; Pratt & Whitney and
MTU claim the geared turbofan can achieve
the same rate whist being dramatically qui-
eter. Although Pratt & Whitney is the only man-
ufacturer fully committed to an existing
architecture, it awaits advances in technology
for the engine to get to the required level of
around 25 per cent fuel burn improvement
over today’s engines. The other manufacturers
are still working hard on research and devel-
opment, and are at an early testing phase.
All the while, the dual and contrasting envi-
ronmental challenges loom: at what point will
the environmental trade-off be made — and
can we really get to a level where the issue
becomes irrelevant and all parties are happy?
Or, as it has often been, will different solutions
have to suit different needs — within imposed
environmental targets, of course.
The technological challenge facing the engine
makers is not one for the faint-hearted. ■
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:44 Page 24
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S
ince 2000 a large number of collabora-
tive research projects have been funded
at national and international level in
Europe, with the aim of attaining an ambitious
goal of 50 per cent aircraft noise reduction in
20 years, established as part of the ACARE
2020 vision. This means a staggering average
of -10 EPNLdB (Effectively Perceived Noise
Level) per certification point on year 2000 air-
craft technology.
Stringent noise certification standards were
introduced in 2006 and airport authorities are
continuously updating local noise regulations,
imposing severe limitations on noisy aircraft
movements, particularly at night. Also, landing
fees are partly levied according to the amount
of noise generated by an aircraft. This combi-
nation of restriction of movements and esca-
lating fees related to noise has a significant
impact on aircraft operating costs.
As a result, in the last decade the aero-
space industry in Europe and the USA has com-
mitted considerable funding to researching
aircraft noise reduction technologies for civil
applications. As a global engine components
supplier to all the major aero-engine and air-
frame manufacturers, GKN Aerospace has
been an integral part of this research effort,
paying particular attention to the noise gener-
ated by engines.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
In recent years flying to city airports has become an increasingly contentious issue for airlines due to aircraft
noise emissions affecting surrounding residential areas. GKN Aerospace is closely involved with international
research to tackle the problem and here describes the technologies it has developed so far.
Reducing engine
nacelle noise
Acoustic liner noise testing at AneCom.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:51 Page 26
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28
Whilst the wing and the landing gear are
also major noise sources, particularly when
approaching the airport, the engine remains
the component that contributes most to the
total ‘community noise’ (noise perceived on the
ground) generated by aircraft.
In addition to community noise, engines are
responsible for a major percentage of total
cabin noise. This affects passenger comfort
and as such represents an important qualita-
tive differentiating factor in the airline’s offering
to their customer.
Acoustic liners
GKN Aerospace has a long experience in the
design and manufacture of acoustic liners for the
low-thrust class segment of the turbofan market,
as well as turboprop applications. This expertise
has recently been developed through contracts
for the HTF7000-series turbofan Honeywell
engine. The HTF7000 is a family of nacelles used
on the Bombardier Challenger 300, the
Gulfstream 250 and the Embraer MSJ and MLJ.
In these designs the intake of the engine as
well as of the outer fan duct (outer section of
the by-pass duct) are acoustically lined using
sandwich-honeycomb structures with a porous
facing-sheet exposed to the air-flow.
Focusing on the intake, the inner duct por-
tion alone is acoustically insulated by means of
a two-piece construction with internal axial
splices, providing attenuation of the sound
waves generated by the fan system propagating
upstream. The intake-lip component has no
acoustic treatment and ice-protection is locally
provided by a thermal anti-ice pneumatic sys-
tem where hot air, spilled from the engine com-
pressor stages, is blown internally to the lip
aerodynamic surface.
The sound waves propagating in this duct
have a large bandwidth frequency content with
peaks of sound pressure levels (tones) at the
blade passing frequencies (BPFs) at low engine
fans speeds. Multiple tonal peaks are found at
high fan speeds. These multiple tones, which
make a buzz-saw noise, are generated in associ-
ation with the formation of supersonic flow at
the blade tips from which shock waves originate.
In each piece of this acoustic liner the aero-
dynamic surface is made of a metallic wire-
mesh material which operates as a filtration
medium. This design is known as a Single-
Degree-of-Freedom Linear (SDOF-Linear) liner.
This is bonded onto a metallic perforated plate
in the first step of the manufacturing process
by spraying adhesive onto the plate in a con-
trolled manner. In a further bonding process
known as reticulation, this assembly is bonded
to a honeycomb core material. A final third step
sees a pre-formed backing skin bonded on the
honeycomb core. The two parts are then fas-
tened using axial boot-straps.
A similar design is employed in the air-
intake of turboprop nacelle applications, for
which GKN Aerospace is also a market leader.
Current projects in this area include the nacelle
of the Bombardier-8 100/300/400 series.
This acoustic liner comprises arrays of
small chambers filled with air where the incom-
ing sound waves, once propagating inside the
cavities, lose energy through a series of multi-
ple internal reflections. This system is quite
effective in reducing noise on a wide frequency
range although the maximum attenuation
occurs within a narrowband which normally
includes BPFs. Furthermore, its low weight
means it provides an efficient means of reduc-
ing noise with little weight penalty.
Using experience gained in the design and
manufacture of these acoustic liners, and with
other constructions for higher temperature appli-
cations, the GKN Aerospace Composite Research
Centre (CRC) with other GKN Aerospace facilities
in Luton, UK, and California have been collaborat-
ing with major aerospace manufacturers on proj-
ects aimed at developing improved turbofan
intake noise abatement technologies.
Understanding the fan noise
source
A significant research effort at GKN
Aerospace’s CRC has been dedicated to
improved modelling of noise source and
acoustic liner absorption in order to enhance
the simulation capabilities being used in the
acoustic design process.
In 2005 GKN Aerospace provided test hard-
ware to the NASA EVNERT programme in close
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Noise related collaborative research programs funded by the European research framework
since 2000.
Photos of the Bombardier Challenger 300 A/C
(top) and of the relevant Honeywell HTF7000
powerplant (bottom). The intake inner duct is
acoustically treated with a classic two-piece,
single-degree-of-freedom linear liner with
wire-mesh on the aerodynamic surface. No
acoustic insulation is provided onto the lip
component of the nacelle.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 04/11/2011 11:23 Page 28
29
collaboration with Honeywell Aerospace.
Extensive in-duct sound pressure level measure-
ments were taken by installing circumferential
and axial arrays of microphones into the inlet. In-
situ, acoustic impedance measurements were
also acquired for the SDOF-Linear liner.
Having completed measurements on the
SDOF-Linear liner, measurements were taken
on advanced composite SDOF-Perforate and
Double-Degree-of-Freedom (DDOF) designs at
the National Aerospace Laboratory in the
Netherlands (NLR), with the objective of meas-
uring the acoustic impedance of advanced
composite acoustic liner designs, including sin-
gle- and double-layer honeycomb structures.
These experimental activities provided valu-
able databases which were used to improve
the modelling aspects that are vital to design
optimisation, as these define the optimum liner
specifications for a given engine. In particular,
the measured distribution of the acoustic
energy across sound wave propagation modes
has allowed for a more accurate characterisa-
tion of the noise source. The quantification of
the sensitivity of the acoustic liner response to
changes in sound intensity and flow boundary
layer development has significantly improved
the models’ ability to predict noise absorption
characteristics.
Such modelling improvements have already
been successfully implemented in the aero-
acoustic analyses. This is destined to make a
significant impact on design — improving the
attenuation provided by future products.
One-piece composite liners
Anticipating customer requirements for
weight and noise reduction on business jet
intake applications, the CRC developed a zero-
splice or one-piece all-composite acoustic liner,
which was successfully tested at the Honeywell
Noise Test Facility in 2008 by using the
Honeywell research engine TECH977, repre-
sentative of a 7K thrust class turbofan engine.
This liner incorporates an enhanced septu-
mised core material, with inserted mesh-septa
manufactured by Hexcel Corporation.
Significant noise benefits — up to -4dB at
critical emission angles – were measured for
this liner, particularly at take-off fan engine
speeds when compared with the earlier tech-
nology employed on the Bombardier Challenger
300. The elimination of the splices in the
acoustic treatment was identified as the key
factor in improving the noise signature of this
engine. Moreover, a 30 per cent weight reduc-
tion was achieved through the acoustic design,
extensive use of lightweight composite materi-
als and the elimination of fasteners.
A key aspect of this product design (for
which a patent application has been filed) is
the out-of-autoclave material processing which
cuts the manufacturing steps and related cure
cycles needed with conventional high-pressure
resin systems. A low-cost, robotic, multi-spindle
mechanical drilling process for composite
material was also developed which reduces the
capital investment otherwise needed to design
and manufacture bespoke drilling machinery.
Finally, parts count and assembly time is con-
siderably reduced with this one-piece solution.
The combination of noise and weight benefits
and a lean manufacturing process has meant
this product has been rapidly brought into a pro-
duction development project for the new
Embraer Legacy 450/500 series business jet
programme. A team of composite structures
specialists and manufacturing engineers at GKN
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Photos of the HTF7000 Honeywell Engine - Outer Fan Duct. This structure is made of a series of panels bolted on a main metallic frame. These
panels are internally acoustically treated by using a single-degree-of-freedom, honeycomb composite construction.
Typical engine noise spectra. Comparison
between low-fan speed (Approach
condition) and high-fan speed (Cut-back
condition) spectra.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:51 Page 29
30
Aerospace is completing the qualification pro-
gramme and refining the manufacturing process
in order to start full production in 2012.
This programme includes qualification of
out-of-autoclave materials for secondary struc-
tures. The advanced material being used is
expected to be applied to many other applica-
tions requiring fabrication of sandwich struc-
tures as it reduces or eliminates the core
crushing issues caused by high pressure auto-
clave conditions. As a result the need to man-
ufacture sacrificial areas (such as ramps and
additional angles to protect the edges of the
sandwich panels) is eliminated with resultant
cost, material and weight savings.
Acoustically treated intake lip
The potential to further reduce engine noise
through zero-splice intake liners means that
large aircraft manufacturers are attempting to
extend the acoustic treatment where possible
into the available space of the nacelle structure.
Following earlier developments within the
SILENCE(R) EU FP6 project as well as RAMSES
I, GKN Aerospace, in collaboration with Airbus
France — Toulouse, has developed a unique
hot-air heated acoustic panel which provides
both ice protection and noise damping. This
design is based on titanium welding technology
and requires significant skill in forming the
material to a complex double-curvature shape.
In flight testing, carried out on an A380’s Rolls-
Royce Trent 900 engine this system has been
proved to maintain the aerodynamic perform-
ance of the intake whilst providing the neces-
sary ice-protection functionality. Further
endurance and fatigue structural testing has
been scheduled at the time of writing as this
technology is being considered for the forth-
coming A350.
After initial interest from customers, GKN
Aerospace has also commenced private ven-
ture research into an electrically heated version
of the intake-lip acoustic liner. This system is
based on the electro-thermal heater mat tech-
nology currently in production at the Luton
plant for wing-slats on the 787. This project
includes the development of techniques for
perforation and electrical insulation of an aero-
dynamic skin with embedded electric mats.
Initial 2D icing wind tunnel testing has had
encouraging results, showing no ice formation
on both pressure and section sides of the lead-
ing edge of a test article that is representative
of the lip of an engine nacelle. In addition, lab-
oratory preliminary lightning strike tests
demonstrate no issues with structural integrity.
More recently, the CRC has completed an
acoustic design optimisation exercise, carried
out to maximize the attenuation provided by the
lip liner within the UK’ national noise pro-
The Engine Yearbook 2012
gramme, called Symphony. In this project the
CRC team has worked in close collaboration
with Rolls-Royce, as well as the Institute of
Sound and Vibration Research (ISVR) at
University of Southampton. High-fidelity numer-
ical simulation tools were used to determine
the maximum sound absorption for this liner
and sub-scale noise tests were conducted at
the ISVR No-Flow rig test facility to validate the
design. Significant noise benefits have been
measured and predicted for the full-scale Rolls-
Royce Trent application.
Cabin noise reduction
While major aircraft manufacturers are mov-
ing away from the traditional aluminium stiff-
ened fuselage structure, the shift to carbon
composite-based structure means that the
noise level inside the cabin could rise to an
unacceptable level. In the 787 and A350 pro-
grammes significant resources have been ded-
icated to analysis of this issue and the design
of lightweight interior acoustic treatments to
compensate.
The CRC is involved in the largest European
research funded programme, OPENAIR, and is
working mainly with Rolls-Royce and ISVR to
develop intake acoustic liners specifically
designed to enhance the attenuation of engine
forward noise transmitted into the cabin. It is
envisaged that a considerable weight saving in
cabin interior treatments will be obtained by
positioning intake liners very near to the noise
source. As such noise has a very low-frequency
content, which calls for deep cellular struc-
tures, the innovative double-degree of freedom
design has been optimised, minimising impact
on community noise.
These research activities will culminate in a
fan rig test scheduled in Q4 2011 at the world-
class AneCom Noise test facility in Wildau,
Germany, which is the largest of its type in
Europe. A dedicated team of GKN Aerospace
engineers has manufactured a novel prototype
liner as well as the necessary rig hardware
interfacing with this liner. This test hardware
has been extensively analysed by specialists
from NLR to accurately profile attenuation char-
acteristics.
GKN Aerospace, with major engine and air-
frame manufacturers, is investing considerable
resources into researching improved noise
attenuation systems for aero-engine nacelle
structures. This on-going research offers impor-
tant near-term opportunities to move towards
the ambitious noise reduction targets the
industry faces, significantly lowering engine
noise, and therefore perceived aircraft operat-
ing noise, for passengers in the cabin and for
people living around an airport or under a flight-
path. ■
Honeywell Noise Test facility at San Tan, Arizona.
Bombardier Dash 8 with (inset) example of an
air intake design for a turboprop nacelle
application. The interior of this intake is
acoustically treated by using a
single-degree-of-freedom liner with linear
wiremesh.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:51 Page 30
FPA_check ATEM113_ATEM 113 07/10/2011 15:36 Page 3
32
T
he Engine Alliance (EA) celebrated its
15th year in 2011 and much has hap-
pened since 1996, when the joint venture
between GE Aviation and Pratt & Whitney was
officially announced.
“The Engine Alliance started with a hand-
shake between the leaders of GE Aviation and
Pratt & Whitney,” Engine Alliance president
Mary Ellen Jones says, “and it’s grown into a
true partnership producing and supporting a
product we’re all very proud of.”
That product, the GP7200 engine, cele-
brated its third anniversary in service in August
2011. Its launch customer, Emirates, is Airbus’
largest A380 customer, with 15 aircraft in serv-
ice and 75 more on order. Air France began
operating the GP7200-powered A380 in 2009
and Korean Air entered service with the
GP7200 in June 2011.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
The GP7200 has been in service for three years now on the A380. In that time its manufacturer,
Engine Alliance, has made several improvements and addressed a handful of technical issues.
Here it provides an update on the programme for The Engine Yearbook.
GP7200 update
During its three years in service, the 12-
month rolling average dispatch reliability rating
for the GP7200-powered A380 fleet has typi-
cally hovered around 99.9 per cent.
Specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the
GP7200 remains one of its best-selling fea-
tures. Prior to service entry, the engine demon-
strated it would perform 0.9 per cent better
than its specification required. After two years
in service, Airbus revised the GP7200 perform-
ance document to reflect a 0.5 per cent SFC
improvement.
“What this means,” Jones explains, “is that
Airbus has acknowledged that we are beating
our SFC specification by 1.4 per cent.”
To an operator utilising the GP7200-pow-
ered A380 on a typical 3,500 nautical mile
route for an average of 5,000 hours per year
this translates to over 244,000 gallons of
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:57 Page 32
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34 The Engine Yearbook 2012
fuel saved. “Nobody likes to see the cost of
fuel rise,” says Jones, “but when it does our
operators at least have the satisfaction of
knowing they are saving more money with this
engine.”
GP7200 engines in service are maintaining
their SFC and exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
margins as predicted prior to entry into service
(EIS). “Our high time engines have more than
1,500 cycles at this point and they are main-
taining excellent EGT margin and performance,”
says Jones.
The healthy performance of the powerplants
has been appreciated by EA’s customers, too.
“The GP7200 engines on our 15 in-service
A380 aircraft have proven to be highly fuel effi-
cient and extremely quiet,” says Sheikh Ahmed
Bin Saeed Al-Maktoum, chief executive of
Emirates Airline.
New in 2011
At the Paris Air Show in June 2011, Jones
announced to the media that EA and Airbus
would begin offering customers thrust up to
72,000lbs in addition to the 70,000lbs rating
currently in service.
“The 70K rating meets the vast majority of
customer requirements and the 72K rating pro-
vides added capability for customers operating
out of shorter runways or needing some extra
range,” says Jones.
The GP7200 was initially certified at
76,500lbs of thrust and has the capability to pro-
duce more than 81,500lbs. “During its certifica-
tion programme the engine was tested at thrust
levels in excess of 94,000 lbs,” Jones explains.
“We tested and certified the GP7200 to the
same standards required for large twin-engine air-
craft in extended-range twin-engine operations.”
GP7200 customers and shops also noticed a
new colour applied to the GP7200 front fan case
assembly in 2011. EA introduced the new aqua-
coloured corrosion-inhibiting coating as part of its
continuing programme to utilise the most envi-
GP7200 trimetric
GP7200 specifications
Takeoff thrust
70,000 lbs / 311 kN
72,000 lbs / 320 kN
Flat Rate Temperature 86°F / 30°C
Bypass Ratio (Takeoff) 8.8
Noise Margin to Stage 4 17 EPNLdB
Emissions
Certified to CAEP/4 but meets CAEP/8
with margin
Engine Length 187.1 in / 4.75 m
Maximum Diameter 124.0 in / 3.15 m
Fan Blade to Tip Diameter 116.7 in / 2.96 m
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:04 Page 34
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generation benefits today. With up to 20% lower operating costs, half the noise and dramatically
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36
ronmentally friendly materials whenever possible.
“The new aqua corrosion-inhibiting coating
has demonstrated equivalent corrosion protec-
tion and adhesion properties when compared
to the original coating,” says Engine Alliance
executive vice-president Kim Sullivan, “but it’s
better for the environment.” The new EAC-
0295-3 specification replaces the original coat-
ing and can be used to touch up cases that
have the original coating.
The GP7200 loses weight
The GP7200 is 150lbs (68kg) lighter since
its EIS and the EA team continues to focus on
additional ways to lose weight.
In 2011, EA introduced a new turbine
exhaust case. The case, built by Volvo Aero,
incorporates a redesign that improves the load
path between exhaust case mount lugs and the
struts, reducing the weight of the engine by
more than 50lbs.
Also in 2011, engineering determined that
the 2.5 bleed fairings in the fan hub frame
module could be removed from the engine
without affecting the low-pressure compres-
sor (LPC) stall line capability. Removal of the
fairings and supporting hardware resulted in
an additional engine weight reduction of
16lbs.
EA also recently introduced a new hub and
strut case with lighter struts, reducing the
weight of the turbine center frame module.
Additionally, introduction of a new, lightweight
LPT shaft has reduced engine weight by more
than 36lbs.
Other weight reduction initiatives are in
process.
“Product improvements are prioritised
based on impact to the customer,” Sullivan
says.
Technical issues
For the most part, the first three years in
service have been a success story for EA and
its customers. However, like any other jet
engine in service there have been a few tech-
nical issues:
■ A fuel manifold leak was discovered in
2010. Investigation revealed a small crack
at the weld joint between the manifold and
the fuel nozzle feeder tube. The crack was
caused by excessive vibration due to high
frequency system resonance. EA issued a
service bulletin and the fleet has been
retrofitted to add P-clamps and auxiliary
brackets to eliminate the fuel manifold
system resonance.
■ Endurance testing prior to EIS revealed that
the metal temperatures in the compressor
2-5 spool were higher than predicted. The
high temperatures were caused by seal
The Engine Yearbook 2012
GP7200 trimetric
The 70K rating meets the vast
majority of customer
requirements and the 72K
rating provides added
capability for customers
operating out of shorter
runways or needing some extra
range.
—Mary Ellen Jones, president,
Engine Alliance
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 10:57 Page 36
37
tooth clearances that were too tight under
high power operating conditions. The EA
incorporated a design change to increase
the clearances and retrofitted a small
number of early engines.
■ During review of a legacy engine, the EA
team identified a potential problem with
the GP7200 FADEC which could cause the
control to continuously reset, resulting in a
rollback to sub-idle engine speed.
Engineering developed a software change
to provide a validation check of control
input parameters to prevent the reset.
Within three months, the GP7200 fleet was
retrofitted with a modified FADEC software
version to eliminate the potential problem.
“One of the benefits of the joint venture,” EA
executive vice-president Kevin Kast explains,
“is that we’re able to utilise legacy engine data
from our member companies to help identify
potential issues with the GP7200.”
There are no airworthiness directives or
safety issues associated with the GP7200.
Split ship capability
The “split ship” concept was originally
developed for very large engines where the fan
case outer diameter was greater than the verti-
cal height of the side cargo doors of the most
common freighter aircraft. This precluded air
transport of full spare engines except by a very
limited quantity of specialised freighter aircraft.
The split ship concept evolved after recog-
nising that conditions that typically drive an
engine off-wing are often associated with the
propulsor and not fan hardware. The GP7200
engine family has been specifically designed
with an easily separable fan case and propul-
sor module as shown.
The split ship concept allows the fan mod-
ule to remain with the aircraft while only a
smaller spare propulsor is transported on site
for replacement. The propulsor comprises all
basic engine hardware, including the fan disk,
LP compressor and accessory gearbox, but
excludes the fan case, fan blades and other
miscellaneous hardware. It can be shipped in a
large variety of aircraft, easing logistics plan-
ning for EA customers.
Emissions and Noise
The aviation industry is preparing for the
expected implementation of the European
Union’s (EU) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS)
in 2012.
The carbon trading and fees have not yet
been established, but industry insiders predict
fees of approximately $30 per ton of carbon.
Since Jet A fuel weighs 6.7 lb. per US gallon,
the 244,000 US gallons of fuel saved with the
GP7200-powered A380 translates to an annual
carbon savings of 2,588 tons, or more than
$77,000. “It’s money that the airlines can use
elsewhere” Jones notes. “And from an environ-
mental perspective, it’s like taking 460 cars off
the road.”
The GP7200 meets current and future emis-
sions requirements with margin. The engine is
certified to CAEP/4, but also meets current
CAEP/6 and future CAEP/8 regulations with
margin.
According to EASA certification test data,
the GP7200 is the quietest engine on the
A380. It is certified to London Heathrow QC4
noise standards and meets expected QC5
requirements with margin.
By the end of 2011, the EA expects to have
31 GP7200-powered A380s in service: 20 with
Emirates, six with Air France and five with
Korean Air. There are 53 EA-powered aircraft
scheduled for delivery from 2012 through
2014, when EA customers Air Austral and
Etihad are expected to enter their A380s into
service.
“With the GP7200 performing so well in
service, I expect the next 15 years to be as
busy and successful for the Engine Alliance as
the first 15 have been,” Jones predicts. ■
The Engine Yearbook 2012
GP7200 Customers
Airline A380 orders
Air France 12
Emirates 90
Korean Air 10
Etihad 10
Air Austral 2
In 2011, engineering
determined that the 2.5 bleed
fairings in the fan hub frame
module could be removed from
the engine without affecting
the low-pressure compressor
(LPC) stall line capability.
Removal of the fairings and
supporting hardware resulted
in an additional engine weight
reduction of 16lbs.”
Engine Alliance president Mary Ellen Jones wraps up another deal.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:04 Page 37
38
H
ydrodynamic non-contacting seals offer
a number of advantages for aerospace
engines. They consume less torque,
which in turn means less heat, less wear and
longer life. Hydrodynamic seals are designed to
last up to 50,000 hours before requiring
replacement, compared with a limit of 10,000
hours for many conventional seals on the mar-
ket. The Eaton team pioneering hydrodynamic
seal technology is composed of many of the
industry’s top experts in the field.
Advances in hydrodynamic seal technology
are paving the way for next-generation engine
cores that can run hotter, faster, longer and at
much higher pressures. For the aerospace
industry, these performance leaps are paying
off in reduced operating cost, improved fuel
efficiency, reliability and life extension.
“Eaton has been successful as a trendset-
ter, mainly because we’ve had key experts and
inventors on our team who’ve given us a head
start,” says Gerry Berard, an Eaton staff engi-
neer with more than 23 years’ experience in
analysis, design, testing and installation of
sealing solutions for aerospace, marine
and offshore customers.
“We’ve developed software tools and test-
ing capabilities to perfect analysis and
testing, and we’re heavily into R&D to
produce new and better film riding,
develop more robust seals and
The Engine Yearbook 2012
In the last few decades, advances in aerospace seal technology have paved the way for more
powerful engines, but the limits of conventional seals remain a barrier to big breakthroughs in
aircraft performance. Eaton explains how principals at work with aquaplaning cars have been
transferred to aircraft engines.
Hydrodynamic seals
increase seal life considerably. We’re develop-
ing technology for aircraft that will be in opera-
tion eight to ten years from now,” he adds.
Eaton offers high-performance, non-contact-
ing hydrodynamic seals in face (axial) and radial
(circumferential) forms. Both can significantly
improve sealing capabilities for speed and pres-
sure and reduce engine overhaul frequency.
The company’s hydrodynamic seals can be
found on aircraft engines for business jets, aux-
iliary power units and gearboxes. In 2007
Eaton’s hydrodynamic face seal became the
first hydrodynamic seal approved by the FAA to
replace an OEM face seal in an aircraft engine
gearbox application.
Now Eaton seal technology is migrating
from smaller engines to main-shaft engines,
and the company’s patented non-contact face
seals have been considered by large commer-
cial engine OEMs for many of their new engine
programmes.
Harnessing the power of physics
Hydrodynamic or lift-off seals float on a very
thin film of gas. The seal relies on the genera-
tion of a lifting force to separate seal faces.
A hydroplaning car is an analogy often used
to explain how a hydrodynamic seal works.
When water becomes trapped in the tire tread,
the resultant pressure lifts the tire onto a film
of water. The same phenomenon occurs when
air is forced between a seal face and rotor face
— air is directed into narrow channels within
the seal surface, thereby increasing
pressure and forcing the faces to
separate and ‘ride’ on a gas film.
The film-riding effect lubricates
the seal and shaft and effectively
reduces the wear, friction and heat
associated with conventional seals.
This allows engines to run at higher
pressures and speed combinations
for much longer durations. The gap
between sealing surfaces is so small
that air leaks are negligible.
“It’s just physics — increased pressure
forces the two seal faces apart,” Berard
explains. “When the engine is off, seal faces
Oil debris monitoring system — Lubriclone
three phase separator for air, oil, & particles,
including QDM sensor and Signal Conditioner
box.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:07 Page 38
FPA_Wencor check EYB2012_EYB2012 02/11/2011 14:47 Page 3
40 The Engine Yearbook 2012
are in contact. As the engine starts, seals sep-
arate and run on a film of air, and they don’t con-
tact again until the engine is shut down.”
An initial challenge in hydrodynamic seal
development was finding a suitable seal-face
material inlaid with the right geometry to pro-
duce a thin, extremely stiff gas film.
An ongoing challenge is maintaining the gas
film in a dynamic engine environment. During
engine operation, parallel faces of the seal and
rotor must generally stay perpendicular to the
main shaft within micro-inches of flatness.
Seals also generally must withstand a wide
range of temperature and pressure changes
without becoming distorted. Because of the
effects of thermal distortion, the surface area
of hydrodynamic seal faces has been limited to
less than eight inches in diameter.
In addition, seals must remain intact if the
aircraft vibrates, which could be caused by any
number of external factors, such as wind, or
vibration from the engine itself.
“If seal and rotor faces become less parallel,
you can’t efficiently compress air and you lose
film-riding capabilities,” Berard says. “Different
metals when heated increase size at different
rates. Our analysis takes those differences into
account. That’s why we test seals at major oper-
ating flight points to ensure seal operation over
a wide range of engine speeds, temperatures,
altitudes and pressures — take-off, climbing,
cruise and so on. Through all conditions, the
faces have to remain essentially parallel.”
The benefits of oil without leaks
Non-contacting hydrodynamic seals provide
a solution to the oil leakage problem of con-
ventional seals. Oil coking, or carburisation, is
the major cause of seal failure and oil leakage.
Hydrodynamic seals eliminate most of the heat
generation of a conventional seal, which signif-
icantly reduces or eliminates oil coking.
Oil leakage is a nuisance to airlines and, in
some cases, may significantly contribute to
flight delays and cancellations. Eaton has
helped aircraft engine companies and airlines
prevent such problems by offering non-contact-
ing, cooler-running hydrodynamic seals as an
upgrade to existing designs.
“If we can eliminate the need for oil cooling,
we can increase engine efficiency,” Berard
says. “You don’t have to carry extra oil and you
can eliminate the oil system for the seals. If
you can eliminate oil from the engine compart-
ment, engines can run at higher temperatures
for longer periods without worrying about cok-
ing — up to 40,000 to 50,000 hours.”
Radial seal technology evolves
Eaton’s hydrodynamic seal division, which
formerly operated as EG&G Sealol and
QDM sensor with significant debris accumulated. This was from an engine that had a
gearbox bearing failure.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:07 Page 40
41
PerkinElmer, has operations in Warwick,
Rhode Island, and Coignieres, France, to
serve a worldwide customer base. Eaton
retiree Jim Gardner was a pioneer in the intro-
duction of dry-running gas face seals and in
1970 received a patent for a rotary mechani-
cal seal — a precursor of today’s hydrody-
namic seals.
Building on Gardner’s patent work, the com-
pany began developing an industrial gas face
seal product line for large, high-pressure com-
pressors in 1986 and has been refining and
expanding the technology ever since.
In the last eight to 10 years, seal technol-
ogy has made significant inroads into aero-
space engines, thanks largely to continuing
research, testing and product development
being done by Eaton. In tandem with continuing
refinements of non-contact face seals, Eaton’s
work on radial seals promises to extend advan-
tages of hydrodynamic sealing to an even larger
suite of engine components.
Radial seals in development by Eaton can
function in speeds of up to 30,000rpm, pres-
sures of up to 75psi, and temperatures touch-
ing 600º F. Seals also must be ultra-efficient at
high altitudes to make up for the lack of air.
Features on Eaton seals are designed to scoop
and compress air into channels to increase
pressure and produce the required film thick-
ness for continued seal operation.
“This is something new and exciting we’re
working on,” Berard says. “Radial seals oper-
ate using the same principle as axial seals.
Eaton’s patented, turbocharged segmented
seal takes the shaft’s momentum to feed sys-
tem air into grooves to create liftoff.
“We’ve tested the seals up to 25,000rpm,”
he continues. “Generally these seals need oil
cooling because air friction generates heat.
We’re now to a point where we don’t need oil
cooling and can run at higher speeds, temper-
atures and pressures. Eaton just obtained a
patent for the next-generation seal and we’re in
the process of testing and perfecting the tech-
nology.”
Engines of the future
Eaton’s work on radial seal technology has
advanced through the use of Design for Six
Sigma tools to increase seal robustness in dif-
ferent environments and to achieve maximum
lift-off and film-riding capabilities.
The combination of Six Sigma tools and
computational fluid dynamics is helping the
Eaton team identify key components that can
serve to optimise film thickness and stiffness
and leakage reduction.
“The stiffness of the film functions like a
spring between two opposing surfaces, like a
magnet, and increases the repulsive force,”
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Berard says. “This makes the film thinner and
stiffer, which prevents leaks.”
Eaton is heavily involved in R&D of radial
seal technology and has built an aerospace
test rig to better optimise the design and per-
formance of seal components. Eaton’s engi-
neering team in Pune, India, is performing
high-end CFD analysis of seals.
“We’re trying to match real-life demands
with our theoretical analyses to see if we’ve
achieved a good prediction tool for seal per-
formance,” Berard notes. “Our goal is to pro-
duce new and better film riding, increase life to
40,000 to 50,000 hours and develop more
robust seals for new and upcoming engines.
“There’s great potential for improved aircraft
performance in the coming years, and hydrody-
namic seal technology will play an instrumental
role in those advancements,” Berard says. “In
our continuing efforts to improve seal perform-
ance, we definitely have our sights set on the
future.” ■
Seal operation must be ensured over a wide range of engine speeds, temperatures, altitudes and
pressures.
QDM Sensor.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:07 Page 41
42
A
s the internal operating temperatures of
turbines have increased to provide more
power and improvements in engine oper-
ation, the need for new advanced coatings also
has increased. A closer look at coatings and
the turbine components they insulate in the
engine hot section shows how important these
applied materials are in the performance of
today’s aircraft powerplants.
Chromalloy’s newest coating, the patented
Low K RT-35 for aircraft engines, further
enhances engine performance. Development
and introduction of the new coating was a
multi-year process that culminated with strong
results and certification for the commercial air-
craft engine.
Advanced coatings
Manufacturers produce high-performance
engines whose simple cycle thermal effi-
ciency has increased significantly during the
last few decades. These higher thermal effi-
ciencies translate to higher thrust in the air-
craft and are achieved through higher
operating temperatures. The higher tempera-
tures are achieved due to the use of super-
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Since gas turbine jet engines were developed more than 70 years ago they have made
significant, continuous improvements — today’s engines are more powerful, more fuel efficient
and more reliable than ever. Advances in engine design, components, materials and other
factors, including thermal barrier coatings and other applied coatings incorporated onto critical
engine parts, have resulted in today’s exceptional power systems, as Lucy Liu, Komal Laul and
Ravi Shankar of Chromalloy explain.
Advances in thermal
barrier coatings
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:10 Page 42
Coatings / Repairs / Parts
Learn more at chromalloy.com
Chromalloy repairs give new life to engine components, while our coatings provide unsurpassed durability in the harshest engine
conditions. By incorporating these capabilities with revolutionary engineering, machining, tooling, the world’s most advanced
independent casting facility and re-engineered parts, Chromalloy extends engine life like no other company can. It’s a testament
to 60 years of innovation—and it can make an impact today. Learn more at chromalloy.com.
Long live your engine.
CHRR 15446 ATEM_8.27x10.95_4C.indd 1 6/14/11 4:37 PM
44
alloys and coatings in the gas path or engine
hot section.
For every 0.001 inch thermal barrier coating
thickness on a high pressure turbine (HPT)
vane or blade, the temperature drops about
25˚F. For a thermal barrier coating of 0.005
inches, that will equal a 125˚F cooler metal
below the coating. The thermal barrier coating
allows the parent metal to operate cooler for a
constant operating temperature.
There are two types of coatings for the gas
turbine engine — diffusion and overlay. In the
diffusion process, a portion of the coating dif-
fuses into the parent metal structure. Coatings
such as precious metal or diffusion aluminide
coatings are sacrificial, providing protection
against high temperature oxidation and low
temperature corrosion.
In the HPT blade section of gas turbines,
overlay coatings are applied using electron beam
physical vapor disposition (EBPVD) or plasma
spraying. Metallic overlay coatings such as
MCrAlY coatings are applied by EBPVD or by low-
pressure plasma spraying. They provide oxida-
tion and corrosion protection and can be used
as a stand-alone coating or a bond coating for
the overlay ceramic thermal barrier coatings
applied by EBPVD or air plasma spraying. Use of
thermal barrier coatings has allowed the operat-
ing temperatures of the HPT vanes and blades
to increase significantly, minimising deleterious
effects on the parent material. As a result the
efficiency of the gas turbine has increased.
Other advantages include increases in the
time required between overhaul and mainte-
nance, resulting in significant cost savings to
the turbine operator.
The leading edge
Chromalloy has been a pioneer in the devel-
opment of innovative ceramic coatings for tur-
bine hot section components for six decades.
The company developed the industry’s first
EBPVD coatings with ceramic materials in the
1980s. Since then it has continued to develop
coatings for aerospace, aero-derivative, marine
and industrial gas turbine components.
The company produces a variety of vacuum
plasma and diffused precious metal or alu-
minide coatings for all hot section engine com-
ponents. The company is a supplier to aircraft
operators for new and repair components, as
well as to the main engine original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs).
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Chromalloy’s Low K RT-35 Coating
Chromalloy recently announced its newest ther-
mal barrier coating, designed to enhance the
performance of gas turbine engines.
“Chromalloy’s new thermal barrier coating – the
RT-35 Low K coating – provides lower thermal
conductivity, which allows higher engine tem-
peratures,” said Peter Howard, VP technology
and quality assurance at Chromalloy.
The RT-35 Low K coating was patented in 2006
and certified by the FAA in 2010 for use on the
PW4000 second-stage high pressure turbine
blade after a series of tests confirmed its low
thermal conductivity, high thermal cycle dura-
bility and other attributes.
The coating is currently in use by a commercial
airline in Asia.
The RT-35 Low K coating provides a layer of
insulation to the base metal component and
underlying bond coating surface of a turbine
blade from the extreme heat of the combustion
gases during engine during operation.
“The coating provides 50 per cent lower thermal
conductivity, allowing engines to perform at
higher temperatures. Engines produce greater
thrust when operating at a higher temperature –
and they can operate on the same amount of
fuel as powerplants that operate at lower tem-
peratures,” said Howard.
“Chromalloy’s RT-35 Low K coating is a critical
driver for the engine to deliver greater fuel effi-
ciency to the operator,” he added.
Chromalloy’s EBPVD centre in Orangeburg.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:19 Page 44
45
When operating temperatures climb in
advanced gas turbine engines – especially when
they rise above 2400?F — the conventional 7YSZ
thermal barrier coating shows rapid deterioration
due to insufficient thermal protection, its own sin-
tering, which reduces the thermal barrier coating’s
compliance, and from additional stresses result-
ing from volume changes due to phase transfor-
mation at these higher temperatures.
To address this, Chromalloy and other devel-
opers produced new thermal barrier coatings to
provide lower thermal conductivity to more
effectively insulate thermal transfer to the com-
ponents, as well as to provide a coated compo-
nent with longer service life based on increased
coating durability. Research and development
began in the 1970s using rare-other stabilisers
and other compositions to achieve lower ther-
mal conductivities. During the last 10 years, tur-
bine OEMs that produce aircraft powerplants
began introducing components with even lower
thermal conductivity coatings than produced
earlier. Low thermal conductivity coatings are
used on components for the V2500 and
PW4000 commercial aircraft engines as well as
some military aircraft engines.
Chromalloy’s Low K RT-35 coating was certi-
fied by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
in 2010 for use on the PW4000 second-stage
HPT blade. Certification followed a series of
tests confirming the low thermal conductivity,
high thermal cycle durability, high sintering
resistance, high thermal-chemical stability and
good phase stability of the coating.
Currently the Low K RT-35 coating is in use
by a commercial airline in Asia. It is an EBPVD-
applied coating that was successfully flight
tested and demonstrated to enhance thermal
conductivity and provide greater protection for
erosion and thermal cycling on coupons and
pins. Low K RT-35 provides a layer of protection
to the base metal component and underlying
bond coating surface of a turbine blade from
the extreme heat of the combustion gases dur-
ing engine during operation.
The coating provides about 50 per cent
lower thermal conductivity, allowing engines to
perform at higher temperatures. In addition,
Low K RT-35 increases the oxidation and corro-
sion resistance of the underlying bond coating
as it is cooler, thus extending the life of engine
components — another cost saving for the
operator.
During development, since the new Chromalloy
coating is a different composition than the Low K
coating applied by the engine OEM, FAA
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Higher thermal efficiencies
translate to higher thrust in the
aircraft and are achieved
through higher operating
temperatures. The higher
temperatures are achieved due
to the use of super-alloys and
coatings in the gas path or
engine hot section.”
Chromalloy’s Low K RT-35 coating on a
high-pressure turbine blade.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:10 Page 45
46
Designated Engineering Representative (DER)
requirements dictated further scale-up compar-
isons and determinations. The following technical
analysis shows how the coating was demon-
strated during development.
Component selection
The selection of the component to be used
as a possible candidate for scale-up com-
menced. The component selected to use an
OEM Low K coating had to be simple in geom-
etry so samples could be easily extracted for
testing. The second-stage blade of the
PW4000-100” engine was selected.
The PW4000 engine used on long-haul
flights has two general variants — the 94” and
100” engine. The PW4000-94” engine has
been in service with relatively few changes
since the mid 1990s. The second-stage blade
in the PW4000-94” has been used with the
industry standard seven weight per cent YSZ
coating for over a decade, whereas the
PW4000-100” was introduced by the OEM with
a Low K gadolinia-zirconia coating. Further
analysis of engine run PW4000-100” blades
indicated that the Chromalloy Low K coating
met key coating criteria for thermal conductiv-
ity, erosion and thermal cycling compared to
the gadolinia based original manufacturer
coating.
Once the coating optimisation was com-
plete, a matrix of components was coated. The
matrix of components coated across several
EBPVD runs ensured that a representative
sample of the coating thickness and its equiv-
alent weight gain range critical for establishing
the components in production could be estab-
lished.
Enhanced turbine components
Following successful competition of com-
parative testing on components, the coating
was approved through the DER process, allow-
ing successful application of Low K coatings on
PW4000 second blade engines. Following suc-
cessful demonstration of coating application
the blades were applied on PW4000-100” sec-
ond blade engines.
The blades have been constantly in service
by an airline and represent a significant mile-
stone towards full production of the Chromalloy
Low K RT-35 coating. The Low K coating is now
being marketed to other aircraft operators for
application in the industry, as well as to indus-
trial gas turbine operators. As its latest devel-
opment, the Low K RT-35 — the company’s
newest thermal barrier coating — offers even
lower thermal conductivity to effectively insu-
late thermal transfer to the engine compo-
nents, and provides coated components with
longer service lives based on increased coating
durability. ■
At Chromalloy Komal Laul is repair development
engineer; Lucy Liu is senior material scientist
and processing engineer; and Ravi Shankar is
director, coating and process technologies.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Research and development
began in the 1970s using
rare-other stabilisers and other
compositions to achieve lower
thermal conductivities. During
the last 10 years, turbine
OEMs that produce aircraft
powerplants began introducing
components with even lower
thermal conductivity coatings
than produced earlier.”
The component selected to use an OEM Low K coating had to be simple in geometry so samples could be easily extracted for testing.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:10 Page 46
At Delta TechOps, we do whatever it takes to meet your needs and exceed your expectations.
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FPA_check EYB2012_Engine Yearbook 2012 02/11/2011 16:08 Page 3
48
D
uring the last two years, the engine leas-
ing market has become more popular
within the investor community. Even
though several newcomers have been attracted,
this is still very much a niche market and only a
few companies have been successful. The
peculiarities of the market are mainly due to the
fact that engines are difficult assets to manage
as in-depth knowledge is required. At the same
time, the market presents several attractive
characteristics for investors when compared to
aircraft leasing: engines are more fluid assets;
engines values are more stable than aircraft val-
ues; cash-flows are more predictable — and it
is easier to diversify engine portfolios.
The four main issues that need to be con-
sidered in engine leasing are marketing,
finance, legal and technical. These factors are
intimately linked and determine the decision to
invest in an engine. This article will focus pri-
marily on the technical considerations and will
provide indications on how to minimise risk.
Marketing, finance and legal issues
In order to identify the best opportunity, the
engine model to be purchased has to be deter-
mined. If a portfolio of engines is to be built,
the investor should buy several engine models
so that risk is minimised.
The potential market has to be analysed,
with a focus on major forces playing in the mar-
ket, i.e. the influence of the OEM, the effect of
new engine models entering the market and
the timing of the transaction. Specific market
studies should be made to analyse the number
of engines flying, the type of market, the per-
centage of spare engines available, the possi-
bility to source spares and the future market
forecast.
Engine manufacturers have a tendency to
use similar names within a family of engines,
though the individual engines may be very dif-
ferent. For example, General Electric’s GECF34-
8 and CF34-10 both fall within the CF34 family,
however they are two distinct and not inter-
changeable engines. Similar examples can be
found in the Pratt & Whitney “PW” or Rolls
Royce “RR” production models. Within the
same model type, there may be several vari-
ants, for which interchange ability has to be
evaluated.
The same engine model can sometimes be
used on several aircraft and its variants.
Normally, the basic engine models can be
installed on several aircraft models with only a
The Engine Yearbook 2012
The basic idea of engine leasing is to provide engines to operators with limited financial options.
Despite high returns on investment, this is still a small market, mainly because management of
lease engines is complex. For investors this is a strategic decision involving several aspects that
require careful evaluation. Even though the returns can be high, there are several pitfalls that the
investor has to be aware of. Here, SGI shares some of the knowledge accumulated over years
advising in investing and leasing engines to operators.
Investing in commercial
aircraft engines:
an expert overview
Engine leasing remains a niche market.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:22 Page 48
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TRADING
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50 The Engine Yearbook 2012
thrust rating change. For older generation
engines, the thrust rating change was laborious
and time-consuming. Currently, the thrust rating
change can be performed in a timely manner,
although thrust increase requires purchasing
an upgrade from the OEM which can lead to
additional unexpected cost if not considered
upon acquisition.
Engines have a life cycle, that closely
matches the aircraft life cycle. Each investor
needs to decide in which section of the life-
cycle to invest, for instance in the latest gener-
ation engine models or in old equipment.
Once the engine model and the price range
are defined, the debt has to be structured. The
structure is directly dependent on the length of
the deal, on the risk of the lessee and on the type
of transaction. The debt structure can be very dif-
ferent, from securitisation deals to engine funds.
Lease agreements have a major legal por-
tion and it is always better to rely on specialists
to review the agreement. The lease agreement
always includes technical aspects, too, and it is
fundamental to pay attention to the details.
The lease agreement has to include provisions
for defaults, different liens, sublease and dif-
ferent jurisdictions, for example.
Major technical issues
As briefly mentioned, investing in engines is
a very risky business, mainly because of the
uncertainty surrounding the assets, the uncer-
tainty of the market and the variety of models,
all requiring specific in-depth knowledge.
Every engine model has specific technical
issues. If such technical peculiarities could
lead to a potential safety concern, an FAA
and/or EASA Airworthiness Directive (AD) is
issued. This normally requires operators to
undertake corrective actions within a defined
timeframe. However, in addition to safety, every
engine model has design issues affecting its
operational cost or its ability to perform as
expected. The OEMs work to provide solutions
to these issues, which evolve over time and are
communicated to operators through service
bulletins. From an engineering perspective, a
continuous update is necessary. The expert
has to be aware of these issues and has to
make sure they are implemented when needed
or taken into account upon acquisition.
A critical factor to be considered, one directly
related to the upgrade of an engine, is the obso-
lescence of parts. OEMs provide the market
with enhanced products and parts as a part of
their after-sales campaigns. Some of them are
necessary to fix existing on-wing problems while
others are product improvements and can only
be introduced during shop visits. In both cases,
the new parts will become the new standard
and the old parts available in the market will
become obsolete. This can be partly resolved if
the old parts can be reworked to the new stan-
dard. Investors interested in end-of-life engine
models have to be particularly careful of this
aspect as it has a large impact on the residual
value of such assets as obsolete parts are
more difficult to place in the market.
In addition to the technical issues affecting
an engine model, SGI has noted that, espe-
cially for modern commercial fan engines, each
engine model has on-wing problems in certain
regions. Some engine models have reduced
time on wing if operations are mainly in India, a
second engine model might require additional
inspections if operated in mainland China. The
Though quicker today, changes to an engine’s thrust rating can still be costly.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:22 Page 50
51 The Engine Yearbook 2012
engine is therefore more expensive to operate
in these areas and this consequently affects
its residual value.
Some engine models show a different dete-
rioration pattern depending on the geographical
areas where they are operated. A typical exam-
ple is the desert region: when the engine is
operated in a sandy environment, the sand pol-
ishes the airfoils and vanes on the high-pres-
sure compressor, while several chemical
components damage the hot section.
These aspects are even more critical on
newly designed engines since they are oper-
ated at higher temperatures than old engines.
SGI has calculated that engines operated in
critical areas, can be up to 30 per cent more
expensive to operate than the same engine
model in a normal environment.
An additional threat to the engine value and
predictability are non-OEM parts and repairs.
PMA parts are now available for the most com-
mon engine models and OEMs are fighting back
by introducing improved models, which prevent
installation of the PMA parts currently available.
An example is the CFM56-7B engine 3D aero
(CFM56-7B/3): old standard (OEM and non-OEM)
parts cannot be installed on new -7B/3 engines.
More and more companies are offering non-
OEM approved repairs, defined as Designated
Engineering Representative repairs or DER
repairs. These repairs are approved by the FAA
and, under some circumstances, can be
imported into EASA, but they may also be a lim-
iting factor to the free transfer or engines
within airlines.
Inclusion of PMA in the engine and, to a
lesser extent DER repairs, have a negative
effect on the engine value due to their unknown
residual value.
Managing the asset
Once the investor has defined the engine
model, a suitable engine meeting the investor
needs has to be found. The length of the
investment has a major role during this selec-
tion. If the lessor is interested in a long-term
lease, an engine with good performances and
good LLP life remaining is preferred.
Unfortunately these are also the most expen-
sive assets.
The value of an engine is largely dependent
on its operational history, its maintenance his-
tory, its current status and the trace of major
components. When performing a generic
assessment, these aspects are considered
standard. However, they have to be evaluated in
detail, in particular:
Maintenance history and forecast
Previous shop visits are checked and spe-
cific attention is paid to the last shop visit. The
analysis of the last major event focuses on the
level of maintenance performed and on the
standard of the parts installed. Based on this
information, the expert can predict the time on
wing until its next shop visit as well as the pre-
dicted maintenance cost.
Physical condition
The current status of the engine is
assessed in detail through visual inspections,
borescope inspections, chip detectors check,
trend monitoring and other methods. The
engine undergoes a thorough check of all exter-
nal parts and systems to make sure there are
no defects limiting its airworthiness and con-
sequent acceptance from the lessee. At the
same time, normally, a complete endoscopic
inspection is performed, to assess the condi-
tion of the internal hardware (i.e. its deteriora-
tion and the possibility for the hardware to be
operated on wing for additional time, without
reaching any limitation dictated by the aircraft
maintenance manuals).
Trace
A fundamental step towards the determination
of the value of an engine is the back-to-birth trace-
ability of major components and its LLP parts.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:22 Page 51
52 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Depending on the engine model, the engine
has several parts which are life limited — i.e.
the OEM and the regulatory agency have
defined a limit for the life of the component,
typically in cycles, though time limits in flight
hours are also found in the market. Based on
this constraint, it is important to understand
how much life has been used on each part.
This analysis is usually referred to as ‘back to
birth’ — i.e. the determination of the life used
since manufacturing.
Modification status
As obsolescence is a major issue and the
presence of PMA or DER has a big impact on
value, during the pre-purchase inspection a
detailed check has to be performed.
Negotiating contracts and
defining maintenance reserves
Once the asset is purchased, the lease
agreement has to be put in place. In addition to
legal clauses, several technical items are rele-
vant and they often define the difference
between an excellent investment and a poor
return.
In order to make sure that there are enough
funds to repair an engine when the mainte-
nance event is due and to minimise the risk of
a lessee default, the lessor should oblige the
operator to put aside a fund on a regular basis,
usually proportional to the hours flown by the
engine. The amount required is usually the
entire cost of repair and discussions usually
centre on the definition of the minimum main-
tenance event for which the fund can be used,
the interval and therefore the amount to be
paid per flight hour or flight cycle.
Typically, the lessor is willing to have the
funds accrued only for a heavy maintenance
event, normally defined as ‘performance
restoration’. This is, as a minimum, the restora-
tion of the engine performance of the core
engine.
It is always difficult to estimate time on wing
— i.e. the time between two major repairs or
performance restoration events, though this
can be done based on the experience accumu-
lated on the same engines by different opera-
tors worldwide. There are a number of factors
influencing the operational cost of the engine.
The first is thrust setting. Engines thrust
can be at different levels. An engine’s physical
condition gradually deteriorates during its life
up to the point where it will need to be
removed. The higher the thrust produced, the
Specific market studies should
be made to analyse the
number of engines flying, the
type of market, the percentage
of spare engines available, the
possibility to source spares and
the future market forecast.”
Every engine model has specific technical issues.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:22 Page 52
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FPA_check EYB2012_Engine Yearbook 2012 11/11/2011 12:44 Page 3
54 The Engine Yearbook 2012
higher the temperatures reached by the engine,
and the higher the deterioration rate will be.
The average length of the flight also has a
big impact on the engine time on wing. An
engine deteriorates most during take-off, there-
fore the ratio of take-off time to time on wing is
crucial. For every engine model, there is a
‘severity curve’, used to define the different
cost per hour or cycle if operational factors
change.
However, not all take-offs are performed at
maximum power, but rather at a lower thrust
setting. This is commonly referred to as de-
rate. De-rates are always applied by the opera-
tor, subject to an aircraft’s maximum take-off
weight and environmental conditions. The
higher the percentage of de-rate used, the less
the engine deteriorates.
Delivery and redelivery conditions
Delivery and redelivery conditions are fre-
quently reasons for discussion between lessor
and lessee. Delivery conditions relate to the
actual condition of the engine, while a lessor
usually requests redelivery conditions to be
added to a contract in order to make sure that
the asset is going to be in an acceptable con-
dition for re-lease once the current lease is ter-
minated. If redelivery conditions are not met,
the lessee is usually forced to perform a shop
visit. The engine is not being repaired for a
technical reason and therefore its on-wing life
is not optimised and its cost per hour is higher.
This is obviously unwelcome for the operator
and should be avoided.
Lessor and lessee often define the redeliv-
ery conditions together by agreeing on the fore-
casted technical conditions of the engine, so
that the asset will be repaired only when tech-
nically needed (and not for commercial rea-
sons) thus maximising the use of the
maintenance reserves and minimising the
lessee’s costs and the engine cost per hour.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:22 Page 54
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55 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Once the lease agreement is agreed and
signed, the engine has to be delivered to the
satisfaction of the operator, monitored and
returned to the owner for another lease or for
breakdown or sale.
Delivery and monitoring
During delivery to the lessee, the engine
and its documents have to be prepared in
proper order, the engine configuration has to be
aligned to the lessee’s wishes and the lessor
has to assist the airline with any issues it may
have.
Regular inspections should be performed
during the lease period to make sure that the
engine is kept in a good condition and the
value of the asset is maintained. Monitoring
of the engine during the lease is seldom con-
sidered as additional cost, though SGI
believes that continuous monitoring and pro-
active management will alleviate problems at
the end of a lease and maintain good rela-
tions with the lessee. In line with this, SGI
has noted an increased focus by leasing
companies on keeping assets monitored as
the interests of the lessees do not always
match the owner’s. Lease contracts should
provide for checks to be performed during
the lease.
Typically, issues during major repairs, where
the operator may try to reduce the cost, while
the owner’s interest is to ensure the proper
standard is maintained and the level of parts
installed are adequate to guarantee that the
next lessee will be satisfied with the conditions
and performance of the engine. Lessors are
increasingly involved in the active management
of engines through the MRO shop and SGI pro-
vides the expertise and knowledge to reach the
best decisions.
During the lease period, the lessor needs
to be continuously updated on technical
issues affecting the engine model as they may
have a detrimental impact on the re-mar-
ketability of the asset. Even more critical is for
lessors to be updated on upcoming regulatory
requirements and to make strategic decisions
accordingly.
Redelivery
Once the redelivery date is near, the lessor
should consider all possible options for the
engine, based on the market conditions, includ-
ing: to sell the asset; to re-lease it; to upgrade
it; to break it into parts; or to exchange it. In
order to make the most appropriate decision, it
is critical to know the condition of the engine.
In SGI’s experience, redelivery is the most crit-
ical phase and has to be addressed at an early
stage by approaching the operator, discussing
requirements and making sure that critical
areas are covered. ■
Each investor needs to decide
in which section of the
life-cycle to invest in, for
instance in the
latest-generation of engines or
in older equipment.
Regular inspections should be performed during the lease period to make sure that the value of
the engine asset is maintained.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:22 Page 55
56
F
or A J Walter (AJW) Aviation, entering the air-
craft engine leasing business was the next
logical step in the evolution of the company,
bringing it closer to its goal of providing optimum
solutions for airline customers. AJW had already
established a wide customer base, with over
700 airline customers in more than 100 coun-
tries utilising its component leasing services, so
engine leasing was seen as a natural extension
to its existing business model and a clear growth
strategy for the company. Launched in early
2011, the new AJW Aircraft Engine Services divi-
sion encompasses four key areas: the supply of
engine parts; engine leasing; engine exchange;
and engine management services.
The aircraft engines sector is a challenging,
dynamic and competitive environment. As well as
AJW there are several other new entrants to the
engine leasing market. These new suppliers are
usually funded from two general sources: major
financial institutions with an existing aviation busi-
ness; and private equity and hedge funds looking
to purchase assets for a long-term investment.
It is also evident that there is growing con-
solidation in the marketplace with joint ven-
tures and ongoing mergers and acquisitions,
such as AeroTurbine being acquired by AerCap
and GE’s acquisition of the Memphis group,
which provides end-of-life solutions for their cur-
rent leased fleets and customers alike. More
recently, ST Aerospace created a new leasing
company in conjunction with Marubeni
Corporation. Thus the market sector remains
dynamic and there is still room for new, niche
The Engine Yearbook 2012
British company A J Walter Aviation was best known as a spare parts manager until it decided to
add engine leasing to its capabilities. Here the company explains why it made the move, the
niche it hopes to occupy and what challenges are in store for others contemplating dipping a toe
in the engine leasing market.
Branching out into
engine leasing
entrants. AJW already has a significant pres-
ence in the airframe business, so expanding
into the engines market allows it to provide
additional services to its current customer
base and attract new customers.
A new approach
The market trend in the engine sector has
normally been to grow very big, very quickly and
then leverage economies of scale. Being pri-
vately owned, AJW’s strategy is different. It is
looking to grow organically and differentiate
itself with its already highly regarded customer
service and support. AJW provides a menu of
services and offers a complete one-stop solu-
tion for airframe components, rotables, con-
sumables and now engines.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:48 Page 56
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FPA_check EYB2012_Engine Yearbook 2012 03/11/2011 12:07 Page 3
58 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Steve Williams, director of aircraft engine
services, comments: “We believe this
approach and our ability to tailor a bespoke
package of services is unique in the market
and will provide an even better solution for our
customers.”
AJW is a leader in component spares man-
agement and entering into the engines market
further complements the services available.
Customers can now have all their support
requirements managed by one central source,
whether they concern engines, components,
rotables or consumables. The new AJW Aircraft
Engine Services division offers an integrated
management solution providing engineering
services, aircraft engines for lease and over-
hauled engine parts to help operators minimise
engine maintenance costs. AJW has the tech-
nical experience to fully evaluate engine pur-
chases to ensure the most cost-effective
products are available for the customer.
Building an engine inventory
The company’s inventory of engines will
grow naturally as it identifies availability and
purchases engines on the open market.
Alternatively, it will purchase assets from air-
lines as they divest their existing fleets and
move into other platforms. Fleet migration is a
key element in AJW’s purchasing strategy for
engines and components. As airlines change
their fleet mix, very often this costly event
requires support from materials specialists.
This is going to be one area of particular focus
for AJW as it assists existing airline customers
to identify suitable engine assets to purchase.
“We’re bringing a wealth of aircraft engine
experience and proven delivery to the sector
and the infrastructure we are building will make
us a serious player in engine sales, leasing and
parts supply” says Williams. “AJW is now rap-
idly building its engine inventory and is cur-
rently able to offer a wide range of CFM56-3s
and 5A1s. This is scheduled to expand into
additional engine types as more acquisitions
come into our reach.”
The next phase of AJW’s development
strategy is to target the newer generation of
aircraft and engines for teardown. “We are
currently evaluating the market to see if it
makes economical and operational sense to
tear down B737NGs and later-generation
A320s. The market economics for newer air-
craft means the lifecycle profile has changed
from over 25 years to nearer 15 years. This
makes the possibility of tearing down younger
aircraft a more attractive proposition,” says
Williams.
This change has occurred because major
lessors are depreciating aircraft over shorter
periods to ensure their fleets can be replenished
The market trend in the engine sector has normally been to grow very big, very quickly and then
leverage economies of scale.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:45 Page 58
Your Assets are our Business
Aircraft / Engine asset & Lease management services
Engine fleet & shop visit management
Aircraft & engines engineering services
Aviation regulatory advisory services www.sgiaviation.com
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Lay ADV.indd 1 09/11/11 10.50
60 The Engine Yearbook 2012
with more modern aircraft. In the current climate
there are several companies who have already
torn down B737NGs and are using the aircraft to
provide engines for leasing or tear-down.
Due to the sheer volume of newer genera-
tion aircraft delivered over the last 10 years,
the demand for leased engines in today’s envi-
ronment is increasing. When this is combined
with the financial pressures on airlines to keep
their lease engine pool to an absolute mini-
mum, it creates a great operating environment
for lease companies. Traditionally airlines
would keep a lease pool of around 12 per cent
of their flying fleet, now this is approaching six
to eight per cent.
There are a couple of major players in the
leasing space and they serve the market in two
strategic ways. Firstly, through the provision of
long-term lease engines to airlines, which can be
positioned with the airline for anything up to 15
years and from the basis of a long-term financial
lease to keep the engine off the balance sheet.
The second possibility is for the lessors to pro-
vide short-term engine leases while an operator’s
own engine is grounded for maintenance. This is
where AJW plans to focus its activities and
become a significant short-term lease provider.
One of AJW’s major strengths is the large
number of aircraft it currently manages under
component support packages. This provides a
natural outlet for materials following an aircraft
tear-down and leaves the engines available for
lease or subsequent part-out. The demand for
materials to ‘feed’ client requirements makes
the acquisition of aircraft an attractive proposi-
tion, especially when combined with the ability
to gain significant value from the engines.
Having complementary services in several
areas has helped the company grow into a full-
service provider for aircraft and AJW can now
offer its customers complete aircraft support.
Exchange, lease or tear-down
values
AJW is rapidly developing its aircraft engine
leasing service, initially focusing on the CFM56
family, and going forward it plans to add the
V2500-A5, CF6-80C2 and PW4000 types to the
pool. The CFM56s are provided on short-term
leases, typically 60-90 days, using the existing
green-time. The short-term leases are primarily
aimed at airlines, offering a support solution for
when one of their existing aircraft engines is
undergoing maintenance and/or overhaul. Going
forward, AJW will focus on aircraft purchases and
use the remaining life on each engine as the
determining factor in aircraft value. Any engine
with a long life-cycle left on it qualifies as an
exchange candidate, while an engine with
medium life remaining will be leased to burn off
the residual green-time. Tired engines will be
allocated immediately to the AJW part-out pool
for tear-down and will later serve as a source of
supply material. The decision for each option
can be financial or operational and AJW remains
flexible in choosing and in utilising engines in a
variety of life-cycle stages.
The company aims to have around 20-25
per cent of engine assets available on a lease
basis. Being mindful of demand trends, AJW
will soon need a large supply of later-model nar-
rowbody engines, such as CFM56-5B/7Bs and
V2500-A5s. With the continued production of
these engine platforms, and the already largely
installed engine base, AJW will be investing in
this area to move the division further forward.
Outsourcing flexible financial and
operational solutions
During the past couple of years, the indus-
try has seen an increase in the number of air-
lines who prefer to keep some of their assets
off the balance sheet. This has increased the
requirement to provide specifically tailored
solutions for the sale and leaseback of aircraft
assets, whether they be engines or a whole
pool of components or other materials such as
wheels and brakes.
This trend is expected to continue in future
years as financial pressure continues to drive
vendors to provide financially balanced and
flexible solutions. In addition, airlines face con-
tinued pressure from OEM price increases,
which can force an engine to double in price
over a 10-year window. This, coupled with
increasing oil prices, means the airlines have
no alternative but to find other ways of sup-
porting their operations.
Lessors face a similar issue since they have
to satisfy the demands of their investors,
ensure their fleet mix meets the market profile
and also maintain an ever-younger fleet. Some
lessors have changed their fleet profile over
the last couple of years and now boast fleet
ages of around three to four years. However, as
these aircraft mature there is also an issue of
how to maximise the residual value of the air-
craft asset.
We are currently evaluating the
market to see if it makes
economical and operational
sense to tear down B737NGs
and later-generation A320s.
—Steve Williams, director of
aircraft engine services, AJW
Fleet migration is a key element in AJW’s purchasing strategy for engines and components.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 03/11/2011 17:18 Page 60
61 The Engine Yearbook 2012
There are generally a couple of methods of
maximising the residual value. The first is to
extend the life of the aircraft by either releasing
or converting the passenger aircraft to cargo,
which has been looked at with varying degrees
of success by several companies on 737
Classics and A320s. The problem with passen-
ger-to-cargo conversions is that the aircraft
flies fewer hours /cycles and therefore requires
less maintenance and hence less engine work
for service providers such as AJW.
The second option is to part-out the aircraft
where the value is 80/20 in favour of the
engines. These engines can be leased or
parted out depending on their current life pro-
file.
When assessing aircraft available for part-
out, the impact of new technology available dur-
ing the overhaul of an engine which delivers
upgrades to the normal production fleet must
also be considered. These retrofits do two
things. Firstly, they control the flow of new mate-
rial into an engine, thus improving its on-wing
life and fuel burn. Secondly, they control the
available market size for the provision of used
material. The OEMs have continually looked for
ways to increase their market share of the MRO
market and these material solutions provide
them with an ideal opportunity to introduce
materials into engines even if they themselves
are not undertaking the maintenance.
When overhauling engines some airlines do
not pay enough attention to managing the stub
life of life-limited parts (LLPs). Very often on the
later generation of engines which have high on-
wing life, there could be LLP stub life of 7,000
cycles remaining, which in cash terms could
equate to over $400,000.
With interest rates staying fairly low over the
last three years, there has been a drive to push
lease factors lower. This is expected to change
over the next couple of years, as costs
increase in direct correlation with inflation.
So, AJW is now focusing its activities on
engine material supply combined with the
development of a pool of short-term lease
engines. The initial portfolio includes CFM56
and V2500 engines but this will grow to include
widebody engines such as the CF6-80C2 and
PW4000. AJW is naturally combining its well-
regarded service delivery with this new expert-
ise in engines and lease engine support as well
as suitable engine assets to lease and/or part-
out, bringing new opportunities to its current
customer base of over 700 airlines. So far
demand has outstripped supply and we are
continually looking to expand our pool to meet
the requirements we have. Currently, we enjoy a
utilisation rate for our lease engines of over 90
per cent and this figure is closely monitored to
ensure we have the right assets in place as the
demand profile changes.
The next phase in the development of the
new engine division is to increase its global
presence. To do this AJW is concentrating on
placing engines for lease in key areas such as
Turkey, India, Middle East, Far East and North
America. This will increase the service offering
to customers and avoid costly transportation of
engines.
AJW continues to expand its global geo-
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EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:45 Page 61
Engine leasing over
the next decade
Spare engine leasing has come a long way since the 1980s and today’s market, though much
smaller than that for aircraft leasing, has attracted plenty of interest from potential new players.
Nonetheless, barriers to entry are formidable and the engine leasing companies still around
today have evolved through several stages of development. Jon Sharp, CEO of Engine Lease
Finance, describes the journey.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
products. The true engine operating lease
hardly existed back in the late 1980s, despite
the growth in aircraft operating leasing.
Rise of the operating lease
The first drivers for change arrived in that
period. Operating leases for aircraft had
become popular, applying to some 20 per cent
of the in-service fleet by the late 1980s, and, as
JT8Ds were replaced by increasingly expensive
models, minds turned towards applying the
same financial product to engines. The rise in
unit value had two effects: firstly, lessors saw
an opportunity, as costlier engines began to jus-
tify the transaction complexity of operating
I
n the formative years of the engine leasing
market, in the early 1980s, the original play-
ers were companies that provided spare
engines on short-term leases to plug the gap
between spare powerplants owned by airlines
and excess demand for engines — usually
caused by unscheduled engine failures. These
companies, such as AAR and AGES, typically
leased the ubiquitous JT8D series, for which
there was near market saturation in the nar-
rowbody market. Also supplying engines to
match this peak demand were the engine
OEMs, whose product support pools were
tapped into for this purpose. The OEMs also
supported the widebody fleets powered by their
62
ELFC CEO John Sharp.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:53 Page 62
The global provider of
64
leases; secondly, the OEMs started taking a
hard look at the costs of maintaining their prod-
uct support pools and realised that some of this
service should be charged on a true economic
basis. Those two factors together started the
early development of the present commercial
engine operating lease business. With Willis
Lease heading in a similar direction, Engine
Lease Finance (“ELF”) was founded in 1989
and wrote its first long-term leases in 1990.
At the same time, engine reliability and
maintenance predictability increased dramati-
cally, reducing the need for short-term leases
for new models. Increasingly, the short-term
leasing product became one that was typically
offered for older engine types more readily
available in the secondary market, which leant
themselves to a business model that burned
off ‘green time’ and then committed a time-
expired engine to part-out. Parts were then
refurbished and sold back into the mainte-
nance, repair and overhaul (MRO) market.
The short-term leasing companies were
(and largely remain) traders who look to turn
over their capital on a regular basis, unlike
operating lessors who typically invest in a prod-
uct with a view to holding it for 10 years or so.
This market sector has since moved on with
the much bigger populations of engines, and
GA Telesis is a good example of a modern grow-
ing company in this area. ILFC have acquired
Aeroturbine apparently with the intention of
leveraging its competence in extracting value
from older engines. It will be interesting to see
how that develops.
After operating lease companies had grown,
they had to prove their business model by
remarketing engines that were five or six years
down the line, having been returned from their
first leases. Any operating lessor whose busi-
ness model is based around longer-term leas-
ing is anxious that as soon as an engine
finishes its lease, it should be placed immedi-
ately onto the next. Unfortunately, availability
for a second long-term lease may not be so
immediate; therefore, rather than having an
engine sitting in a warehouse incurring storage
and finance costs, a lessor looks to place it in
the short-term market until a long-term position
is found.
Accordingly, the ‘new’ breed of operating
lessors also became short-term lessors. With
the growing sophistication within the engine
leasing community this line has become
blurred and the mature companies of today
offer a mixture of products, often combining
them to offer the airline a ‘one-stop shop’ for
all their leasing requirements, which is where
ELF is now positioned. Now, the short-term
leasing product has become more common-
place for modern engines, which may or may
not be characterised as a pool.
The next development arose as operating
lessors became more financially sophisticated
The Engine Yearbook 2012
The original players were
companies that provided spare
engines on short-term leases
to plug the gap between spare
powerplants owned by airlines
and excess demand for
engines – usually caused by
unscheduled engine failures.”
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:53 Page 64
65
and saw opportunities to syndicate packages
of engines with revenue-earning leases
attached to them. Nowadays most engine
lessors have sold off such packages, taking
profit and raising cash as a minority share-
holder while earning lease management and
engine remarketing fees. These syndication
platforms also provide a vehicle for portfolio
management. ELF currently has 74 engines
part-owned or under management and holds
mandates for a further 17, all with a variety of
investors, though we continue to own outright
the great majority of our engines.
By 2010 a sophisticated and well-rounded
engine leasing market had developed and, of
course, I like to think that ELF has been instru-
mental in leading the charge. But a lot more
has been going on: the OEMs have greatly
expanded their aftermarket product offerings,
notably in providing all-inclusive maintenance
and overhaul services, some of which are com-
bined with spare engine support. GE Engine
Leasing and Rolls-Royce Partners Finance are
now the two largest engine lessors in the world
by dollar value and have rapidly grown their in-
house maintained portfolios. SES, a subsidiary
of CFMI, is also significant in this mix, offering
pooling services for the CFM family of engines,
as well as some operating leases and non-club
short-term leasing. The airlines have an
unprecedented choice of service providers.
It is the operating lease market that repre-
sents the core business for ELF. The company
acquires a large proportion of its assets
through relatively risk-free sale-and-leaseback
deals; these involve the acquisition of the
engine and its simultaneous placement on
lease and commencement of revenue earning
life. This part of our business has been
extremely strong in the years following the
financial meltdown of 2008: the financial crisis
had the dual effect of reducing airlines’ rev-
enues and cash at the same time as closing off
potential sources of funding as banks ran for
cover. It should be recalled that 2006 and
2007 were record years enjoyed by the air-
frame and engine manufacturers for orders.
And as has been repeated in economic cycle
after cycle, those record numbers of engines
and aircraft then rolled off production lines just
when the airlines didn’t need them and can’t
pay for them. It has always been important that
leasing companies, as asset investors, cor-
rectly anticipate the economic cycle.
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EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:56 Page 65
66
Accordingly, another set of record orders at the
2011 Paris Air Show didn’t escape our atten-
tion.
Riding the cycle
The demand for operating leasing is obvi-
ously driven by airlines’ desire to raise cash
and remove assets from their balance sheets,
a common feature during times of economic
hardship, and a growing business at a time
when the perceived ‘funding gap’ in aviation
finance has risen. Also, the trend has been for
airlines to source specialist funding for aircraft
engines. The driver for this has been the
increase in engine prices over time. For exam-
ple, in 2000 a CF680-C2 B1 had a sticker
price of $6.5m, but this had increased to
$13m by 2010. Similarly, we have seen the
introduction of very large engines, notably the
various offerings for the 777. The GE90-115 B
today sports a stratospheric list price of
$32.5m including QEC. Whatever the eco-
nomic climate, airlines are keen to close out
residual value risk, the importance of which
has risen in line with engine values. The lessor
is better positioned to manage this risk as it
can lease the engine for consecutive terms,
then burn off green time with a short-term
lease and liquidate the asset — options not
open to an airline.
Thin profits in the airline community are well
recognised. IATA keeps on revising its 2011
estimates for industry profit as oil prices
change, since fuel is the major spend and has
a dramatic effect on the bottom line. We have
recently seen two French banks announce their
exit from air finance, no doubt because they
see it as too cyclical and so risky. However,
banks are sticking around to fund the lessors,
as they take a longer-term view. Small wonder,
then, that some 35 per cent of all current air-
craft orders are with aircraft leasing compa-
nies. This trend of major order placements has
not been followed so much by the engine
lessors due to uncertainty both over engine
performance and over OEM market support
intentions, however.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:53 Page 66
67
It appears the aviation industry is set for
significant long-term growth, even with the cur-
rent concerns about the eurozone and US debt.
Despite inevitable cyclical disturbances, the
backbone of this belief is that air travel is fun-
damental to global politics, its economy and
society. Major forecasts such as Boeing’s pre-
dict that from 2010 to 2029 there will be about
31,000 new aircraft delivered in order to sup-
port both growth in the world fleet and replace-
ment of obsolete aircraft. It would be make the
jobs easy for those of us involved in investment
decision-making if this was a steady flow, but
the ups and downs do present an opportunity
for the engine lessor who really understands
his market, engine type by engine type — there
is little macro-thinking in engine leasing.
Nevertheless, looking at the big picture,
these aircraft delivery forecasts lead us to the
conclusion that some $2bn of spare engines
will be funded every year on average by operat-
ing leases. A large proportion of this, perhaps
up to half, will be provided through some form
of maintenance-related package provided by
the OEMs. That leaves a billion dollars a year
for the five or six specialist engine lessors in
the market. Compared to aircraft leasing that is
a small market, making engine lessors niche
players. However, the market does appear to be
robust in the long term and it is perhaps for
that reason, rather than any large-scale oppor-
tunities, that new players are constantly
expressing interest in joining the market.
It is, however, very tough for new entrants to
develop critical mass in a business which, dol-
lar for dollar, is more complex and overhead-
heavy than aircraft leasing. A company has to
go through all of the stages of development
referred to above before they get there. Add to
that the fact that competition is fierce and new
business placed on the books — whether by
sale and leaseback or by order placement and
subsequent lease — is now written at histori-
cally low lease rates (significantly lower than
aircraft), which results in a negative yield curve
for the early years. It is only by means of a
mature portfolio spread sensibly over new and
older engines that a lessor will run a success-
ful and profitable ‘mixed economy’. It also
means they need deep pockets.
ELF’s Macquarie deal
ELF’s efforts are greatly supported by our
parent company in the US and its ultimate par-
ent, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, and it is
that financial strength which has allowed us to
pursue a successful strategy of growth to
achieve our current position of maturity. That
has recently culminated in our agreement with
Macquarie Aviation Capital Finance to purchase
its engine assets. This represents the acquisi-
tion of 47 engines with 18 different lessees
plus the servicing rights and obligations for an
additional seven engines owned by an investor
fund; this allows ELFC to continue to grow its
owned and managed portfolio of modern aero
engines towards nearly 300 engines and pro-
vides for the addition of seven new customers
to our portfolio. The acquisition of these
engines allows ELF to step up its growth plans
with immediate effect during 2011. We have
now consolidated our position as the third
biggest engine lessor on the planet, and, by a
significant distance, the largest not affiliated
with an OEM, although we continue to work
closely with them. We estimate that our share
of the true engine operating lease market is
somewhat in excess of 20 per cent. We will
continue to aggressively pursue revenue and
portfolio growth through sale-and-leaseback
transactions, engine order positions and other
portfolio opportunities in line with our strategic
business objectives. ELF looks forward to con-
tinuing to lead the charge in this compelling
market. ■
The Engine Yearbook 2012
In 2000 a CF680-C2 B1 had a
sticker price of $6.5m, but this
had increased to $13m by
2010.”
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 11:57 Page 67
68 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Financial imperatives, technological advances and emerging markets are all affecting the shape
and size of the engine MRO industry. Together, these influences are creating major changes in the
way the industry does business. Chris Kjelgaard reports.
Trends in the engine
MRO business
M
any factors impact how the turbine
engine maintenance, repair and over-
haul business is operating. New mate-
rials and design technologies are keeping
modern engines on-wing longer. Together with
on-condition maintenance programmes which
use the diagnostic capabilities offered by digi-
tal engine control systems, advanced tech-
niques which can repair parts inside the engine
without requiring it to be removed from the wing
are also improving on-wing times.
A continuing increase in the number of
leased aircraft is making the management of
engine return condition ever more important.
Lessors’ requirements for MRO contracts to be
tailored for specific engines rather than for par-
ticular operators are creating significant
changes. Meanwhile, the rapid growth of the
airline industries in China, India, Brazil and
Russia, the CIS nations, and Latin American
countries is changing the face of the engine
MRO business geographically.
No less important is the emergence of the
low-cost airline sector, as well as consolidation
among legacy carriers. The difficulty the airline
industry overall is finding in shaking off the
effects of the economic crisis as fuel prices
continue to fluctuate is forcing more airlines to
outsource their engine MRO business. Even
while this is going on, some big carriers are
bringing more business in-house, often through
joint ventures with OEMs. And, as new engines
become more complex and technologically
advanced, OEMs are increasingly controlling
the MRO aftermarkets for their products.
At the same time, airlines seek cost savings
wherever they can be found and are putting
pressure on engine MRO providers — OEMs
and independents alike. Meanwhile, more air-
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:00 Page 68
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70 The Engine Yearbook 2012
StandardAero has been able to quantify the costs and benefits of proactive versus reactive engine
maintenance to its customers.
photo: StandardAero
lines have access to new aircraft with new
engines, and many carriers operating older
engines are doing so for shorter periods — so
MRO shops must adjust the services they offer
to meet a growing desire among operators of
older aircraft for short-term repairs rather than
full overhauls. Long-term total care contracts
are becoming more widespread and more
engines are being torn down or traded rather
than repaired.
The changes taking place
“It’s not like it is moving in one direction —
a couple of different business models are
being applied by different players in the mar-
ket,” says Frank Walschot, SVP of engine main-
tenance for SR Technics.
“We see increasing demand for OEM MRO
support or long-term overhaul service agree-
ments,” says Brian Ovington, senior marketing
manager, services for GE Aviation. “Rolls-Royce
and IAE [already] have a large penetration in
long-term agreements on their current models,
but Pratt & Whitney is going to market with its
service offering alongside the geared turbofan.
CFM [International] … is providing services
directly by offering customers long-term agree-
ments with its new LEAP engine.”
According to MTU Maintenance, airlines’
financial difficulties and a strong shift to
newer aircraft (with new engines) from older
aircraft are creating price pressures and com-
petition for MROs, creating lower demand for
engine-overhaul work. There is also stronger
demand for leased engines, as airlines buy
fewer spare engines of newer models.
Operators are also demanding financing or
sale/leasebacks of spare engines and rota-
bles; and to save cash they try to shift the
financial risk of engine operation as much as
they can to the MRO provider.
For older engine types, MRO payment
plans are changing from power-by-the-hour
contracts to fixed-price contracts or time-and-
material contracts, according to MTU
Maintenance. “For newer engines, there is a
trend towards so-called ‘payment per event’
contracts, where the agreed fixed rate — typi-
cally also on a flying-hour or cycle basis — is
paid at the time of the shop visit,” rather than
in advance or monthly. The company says
there is also growing demand for alternatives
to using new parts. These alternatives range
from buying single used parts (a relatively
high-cost option) to tearing more engines
down, in order to swap modules to create one
serviceable engine from several unservice-
able powerplants.
Another alternative is to trade out engines
which require repair or whose life-limited parts
(LLPs) require replacement, rather than over-
hauling them. Pedro Pedroso, general manager
of engine sales for TAP Maintenance &
Engineering’s marketing & sales department, is
seeing “more exchanges of older engine types
needing repair by serviceable engines removed
from parked aircraft, as these are still avail-
able”. He says outsourcing of engine MRO work
by airlines will probably increase, because
“new engine types have high shop investment
costs, high shop logistic cost, and increasing
technology input”.
For engines in the second and third stages
of their life, operators “are getting more savvy
on workscopes and parts,” says Brian Neff,
owner and CEO of CTS Engine Services, a Fort
A continuing increase in the
number of leased aircraft is
making the management of
engine return condition ever
more important.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:00 Page 70
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72 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Lauderdale-based CF6-50 and CF6-80 repair
specialist. Neff, formerly CEO of cargo operator
Southern Air, says his airline often found when
sending engines out that MRO providers would
perform (and bill for) a full overhaul as a matter
of course rather than just performing the repair
that was actually needed. Now, airlines “are
looking for someone more flexible regarding
having someone say that only a modular repair
is required rather than a full overhaul”.
“As fuel prices keep going up and OEM
prices increase each year [by] about six to eight
per cent, the MRO industry is unpredictable
and everyone is looking to maximise value for
every dollar spent,” says Charlie Rey, SVP of
sales & logistics for Miami-based F.J. Turbine
Power. “A lot of MROs in Miami have closed due
to the economy. For the next 10 years, as old
aircraft like the MD-80, the 737-200 or 737-
300 get retired, there will be a reduction in
engine inductions. New engines being pro-
duced will stay on-wing longer … which means
fewer engines for the OEM and the third-party
MRO to work. For example, a CFM56-7B logged
40,000 hours without a single removal.”
Longer on-wing times
Walschot says that not only do new engines
stay on wing longer, but after their first shop
visits the repaired engines stay longer on-wing
than older types did. Today, first-run engines
usually come off-wing as a result of LLP life lim-
itation, not because of a deteriorating exhaust-
gas temperature (EGT) margin or another hard-
ware condition. For leased aircraft, particularly,
this creates a situation for operators that
requires careful decision-making.
Should the operator replace the LLPs —
which can cost as much as $2m — and not
obtain all of the useful life from the new LLPs
before the engine’s next scheduled shop visit
or its lease return? Or should the operator
replace the run-out LLPs with others contain-
ing only enough life to see the engine through
to its next scheduled shop visit? The latter
choice means the operator attempting to
match the aircraft’s scheduling to the remain-
ing life on the replacement LLPs — often by
having the aircraft operate longer flights in
order to keep its utilisation high.
Management of these variables to ensure a
level of continuity in flight operations is a skill
that has been one of the key factors in the
success of some low-cost carriers, says
Walschot: “They take the last half-degree of
EGT margin out of the engine before it goes
back to the lessor.”
Most engines have now transitioned to on-
condition maintenance programmes, giving air-
lines (and lessors) the ability to develop
maintenance programmes which range from
being very proactive to extremely reactive, says
Jen McNeill, acting SVP, airlines and fleets for
StandardAero. McNeill says the increasing
capability of remote diagnostics and trend mon-
itoring allow powerplant engineers to monitor
engine performance, to schedule shop visits
which previously occurred on an unscheduled
basis, and to develop “surgical” workscopes
that fix deficiencies without having to tear down
the entire engine.
“Interestingly, we see customers evaluating
the cost of preventive maintenance against the
benefits of increased time on-wing,” says
McNeill. “For those who decide the benefits of
preventive maintenance and upgrades are
worth the up-front cost, we are seeing
According to MTU Maintenance, airlines’ financial difficulties and a strong shift to newer aircraft are creating price pressures and competition for
MROs, creating lower demand for engine-overhaul work.
For those who decide the
benefits of preventive
maintenance and upgrades are
worth the up-front cost, we are
seeing increased engine
reliability.
—Jen McNeill, acting SVP,
airlines and fleets,
StandardAero
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:00 Page 72
73 The Engine Yearbook 2012
increased engine reliability.” Additionally, “as
an MRO facility, we have found that we have to
be able to quantify the costs and benefits of
proactive versus reactive engine maintenance
to our customers. We are also required to have
a workforce that is flexible and can adapt to the
variation in our customers’ maintenance pro-
grammes.”
Outsourcing of engine MRO
MRO providers generally agree that the
outsourcing of engine MRO by airlines will
grow. MTU Maintenance says this is the nat-
ural result of engines becoming more com-
plex and their materials more advanced; as
OEMs increasingly aim to control their after-
markets; and as airlines focus more closely
on their core businesses. “There are only a
limited number of providers that will be able
to access both the required technology and
licenses for newer engines, and obtain
economies of scale and capital to justify such
programme entries. Of course, some airlines
will continue to in-source, mostly in develop-
ing countries and especially when govern-
ment backing and financing is available,” the
company says.
Indeed, “In emerging areas like the Middle
East and China, where the fleets are growing
more rapidly, some airlines are transitioning
from an outsourcing model to one where they
are growing indigenous MRO capabilities,” says
GE Aviation’s Ovington. “Airlines are building
new facilities not only to help them maintain
their expanding engine fleets but also to build
a technology base to diversify industrial capa-
bilities in-country.”
At present, older engines “are facing strong
replacement by newer aircraft and engines,”
says MTU Maintenance. This is leading to “a
short-to-medium-term trough in demand for
some shops, as older engines no longer
require MRO and newer types enjoy a ‘honey-
moon’ period of, typically, six to seven-plus
years. All in all, even though the engine MRO
market is growing together with steadily grow-
ing fleets in service, engines will see less shop
visits during their life cycles and their opera-
tions within a certain operator.” A given engine
might not even see a shop visit at all with its
first operator.
Even as engines age, their on-wing time
will remain high, says Neff. “As an engine gets
older, people understand it better. You get a
‘tribal knowledge’ of an engine that comes with
operating it for 20 years.” For ageing engines
such as the CF6-50 and mature engines such
as the CF6-80, specialists like CTS Engines can
prove a valuable resource for operators. “If
there’s a problem, you can call us and we can
help you so the engine can stay on wing rather
than coming off for overhaul,” says Neff. “If the
OEM does a tech insertion [upgrade], that cer-
tainly extends time on wing, too.”
Technological advance: a barrier
to entry?
Technological advance is a key factor in
determining the future shape of the engine
MRO business. GE and CFM, for example, tend
“to design for longer time on wing, which
means fewer shop visits and less need for
MRO capacity,” notes Ovington. Designing for
reliability and fuel-efficiency means using
advanced systems integration and component
geometry, as well as advanced materials and
coatings. New engine models will require
advanced repair processes; and as a result GE
and CFM are investing significantly to ensure
these will be available.
“Because of the high reliability and per-
formance expectations on new engines, you’ll
see tighter control over the licensing of these
advanced repairs, to ensure engines operate
to the expectations of the OEM product com-
mitment,” says Ovington. “Airlines also recog-
nise that more advanced engine designs bring
a certain level of uncertainty in future mainte-
nance costs. Therefore, more airlines are sign-
ing long-term service agreements much earlier
than in the past. This allows them to lock in
their maintenance costs in order to ensure
engine performance improvements are
realised.” GE now has a $60bn backlog of
engine-maintenance contracts, in large part
because of customers signing long-term agree-
ments. “We need to ensure that our MRO net-
work can fulfil on our long-term service
commitments.”
SR Technics thinks the technological
advances introduced in new engines will prove
a major barrier to entry for independent
MROs. Accordingly, the company’s key busi-
ness strategy is to align itself with OEMs as a
licensed repair station, but to keep itself
apart enough from them to be able to offer
customers an independent MRO alternative to
the long-term total-care packages sold by
OEMs. Such packages are often comprehen-
sive, but they can be costly and not all opera-
tors like them.
Through technological advance and total-
care agreements, OEMs have gradually eroded
their affiliated shops’ and independent MROs’
share of the total market over the past two
decades to the point where such shops now
control between only 15 to 20 per cent of the
market. However, Neff thinks that share “is
pretty much going to stay the same” in coming
years, as operators look to keep costs down
wherever possible.
Non-OEM shops still needed
One reason for this belief is that independ-
ent and airline-affiliated shops will be needed
TAP Maintenance & Engineering believe outsourcing of engine MRO work by airlines will probably
increase.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:00 Page 73
74 The Engine Yearbook 2012
GE and CFM are investing significantly to ensure advanced repair processes are available.
merely to offer an alternative to the OEMs, par-
ticularly for older engine types. “As an airline
we have to lead the changes to improve our
own results, with an impact on the customer
base,” says TAP Maintenance & Engineering’s
Pedroso. “We are always trying to find ways to
change, e.g. by increasing in-house repair capa-
bility, and process improvement — lean, et
cetera — applied to maintenance, logistics and
all areas of the company.”
Another reason such shops will be needed
is that many operators will continue to pick up
older aircraft and engines on relatively short-
term leases from lessors, creating a large MRO
requirement from the operators and the
lessors themselves. By using proxies in the
form of licensed MROs, engine OEMs will be
able to participate profitably in this market.
“GE has changed its network structure from
all-OEM-owned MRO facilities to having a nice
mix of OEM, airline and third-party providers in
our network,” says Ovington. “This allows our
customers greater flexibility on where they
receive OEM-quality workscope and material.”
As OEMs, GE and CFM are responsible for
forecasting the spares and component-repair
needs of their engines when their powerplants
start requiring heavy maintenance. Ovington
says the companies have improved their MRO
forecasting and customer-engagement prac-
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:00 Page 74
75 The Engine Yearbook 2012
tices to provide advance insights into future
demand for materials and repairs, “and ensure
materials are available as MRO needs
emerge”. GE introduces about 1,000 repair
offerings a year on its product lines and has
more than 100 specific repairs already devel-
oped for the GEnx as the engine enters service
in mid-September.
Customers’ needs are changing
Cost-reduction and other factors are changing
MRO customers’ needs. For one thing, McNeill
says that “the increasing proportion of lease air-
craft in the marketplace has elevated the role of
lessors in the maintenance transaction, and
lease return conditions play an important role in
establishing engine MRO workscopes.”
Additionally, customers have “become
more cost-sensitive since the crisis, a demand
we try to fulfil by offering customised and
financially optimised contracts as well as
developing repairs for high-cost items rather
than replacing,” notes MTU Maintenance. For
older engine types, the company is working on
“increasing used-parts usage, which we partly
source in by actively tearing down engines. We
have also worked out fixed-price workscopes
as well as ‘bag-and-tag’ solutions for cus-
tomers no longer wanting to overhaul, but sim-
ply to swap, serviceable engines.”
Neff, meanwhile, says there is “fairly con-
stant pressure by the customer to be involved
in the process. We believe customer involve-
ment at all stages is a very good thing. We’re
very happy to have the customer come in and
source things and price things,” to help keep
their MRO costs down. “We want customers
to be aware of what’s going on with their
engines and to put out the best product we
can.”
GE is seeing that, for new engines, “cus-
tomers are asking for more spare-engine sup-
port”. “As our engines have become more
reliable with longer time-on-wing, many cus-
tomers don’t want to invest capital in large spare-
engine fleets. So customers are looking for an
OEM spare pool to help when they need a spare,”
says Ovington. “Customers who operate mature
engines also have evolving spare-engine options.
Spare-engine availability has increased as older
planes retire — engines are available to run off
green time, lease rates are low, and more MROs
are offering ‘free’ or low-rate-lease engines to win
shop visits.”
As MROs’ capabilities have grown, cus-
tomers have passed more risk to the MROs by
demanding ever-more-stringent guarantees on
repaired engines, says Walschot. “Ten years ago
you would see 1,500-to-5,000-hour warranties.
Now 15,000 hours is normal, depending on the
engine model. The customer also tries to pass
lease-return conditions on to the MRO, by a guar-
antee that the engine will meet the lease-return
criteria. Under these conditions, you have to
have a long-term agreement and a significant
number of engines under contract, but the oper-
ator requires a lower cost of ownership.”
This has made engine condition monitoring
more important to MROs, which are requiring
operators to accept real-time monitoring of their
engines through monitoring centres run by the
MROs themselves. “Contracts have become more
complicated — there’s no such thing as a stan-
dard contract anymore,” says Walschot. “There’s
price pressure on the MRO, but the operator has
to make a longer-term commitment, so the MRO
can put in an engine condition monitoring system
there. But, for the MRO, the risks are still there if
you make a mistake in your calculations and
assumptions.” Fast-changing though it may be,
the engine MRO business is a risky one. ■
A key requirement for engine MROs is to have a workforce that is flexible and can adapt to the variation in customers’ maintenance programmes,
according to StandardAero.
photo: StandardAero
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:00 Page 75
76
I
t may seem a trite observation, but it speaks
volumes: the overhaul bill for an engine is
divided mainly between the labour needed
and the cost of the exchanged parts. While
human input and man hours are a constant fac-
tor, the volume of the various engine parts,
modules and systems to be replaced is subject
to a degree of fluctuation.
An MRO operator, working closely with man-
ufacturers, can implement initiatives designed
to minimise the quantity and cost involved. A
calculation known and understood by all is that
the more often one repairs an engine, the less
new parts are needed and the greater the profit
earned from the powerplant.
“When it comes to cutting engine mainte-
nance costs, the emphasis is mainly placed on
the development of in-house repair capabili-
ties,” says Rodolphe Parisot, AFI KLM E&M
head of engine part strategy.
“Rather than sub-contracting out work on
certain parts and hence racking up costs for
the customer, we seek to develop and industri-
alise a repair process within our own company,
naturally allocating dedicated personnel and
engineering resources to it.”
AFI KLM E&M included this insourcing phi-
losophy in its strategy several years ago, not
only as a means of integrating its services and
capabilities, but also in direct response to the
needs expressed by airlines and the engine
maintenance market. The group has now main-
streamed the idea throughout its engine main-
tenance network. Thus, its CRMA subsidiary in
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Overhauling an aircraft engine is a considerable expense for an airline, adding up to millions of
dollars per shop visit. The cost of overhauling a medium-range engine, for example, is anywhere
between two and three million dollars. Although advances in technology and engineering
resources benefit modern powerplants — which have significantly longer lifespans, better reliability
and longer mean times between maintenance — the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) of
aircraft engines remains a major element of airline cost bases. In response, MRO companies are
constantly developing new solutions to minimise maintenance costs for their customers.
The secret to minimising
engine maintenance costs
Elancourt, France, which specialises in repair-
ing specific engine parts and modules, most
notably combustion chambers and turbine cen-
tre frames, offers its capabilities with the CF6,
CFM56, GE90 and GP7200 engine families. By
virtue of a co-operation agreement between AFI
KLM E&M and Engine Alliance, CRMA is now a
‘Primary Source’ repair shop for GP7200 com-
bustors and turbine centre frames.
Developing integrated on-site
MRO capabilities
The combustion chamber is a vital part of
the engine, essential to its performance and
reliability. It demands high levels of technical
expertise and state-of-the-art facilities for tear-
down and re-assembly. Because of the specific
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77 The Engine Yearbook 2012
When it comes to cutting
engine maintenance costs, the
emphasis is mainly placed on
the development of in-house
repair capabilities.
—Rodolphe Parisot, AFI KLM
E&M head of engine part
strategy.
nature and advanced technology of the parts,
repairs to the combustion chamber can rapidly
lead to a need to replace defective or damaged
parts.
Increasingly, however, more thought is turn-
ing towards the design and implementation of
new procedures and capabilities. “CRMA began
working with very big engines at a very early
stage, and has pursued a pro-active policy of
developing new repair processes for many
years with the assistance of the dozen engi-
neers working in its development & design
office,” says Parisot.
“Leveraging this policy and focusing on a lim-
ited number of engine components, CRMA has
earned a reputation as a centre of excellence, and
its engine shop is currently able to offer cus-
tomers on-site, full-service treatment for combus-
tion chambers, notably those of the GE90-94.”
For airlines, the repair industrialisation and
development programmes that are becoming
increasingly common at MROs are a solution to
reliability problems and minimising engine over-
haul costs. For the operators who deploy them,
although these programmes involve lengthy
tooling-up periods and large-scale investment,
this is rapidly recouped by the opportunities and
the additional workscopes they attract. Each
year, CRMA receives and overhauls 300 to 400
combustion chambers at its engine shop.
It took the Elancourt-based company three
years to develop the process for changing the
multi-hole outer liner on a GE90-94 combustion
chamber, with two engineers working full-time
on the project. The task involves drilling close
to 28,000 holes with a diameter under 1mm
(the dilution holes through which the flow of
new air is injected into the combustion cham-
ber) spaced just 2.5mm apart. The engine
shop accordingly invested $2m in a YAG laser
to drill holes a few dozen micrometres in diam-
eter at speeds of up to several hundred opera-
tions a second. Trained to use the laser by its
manufacturer, CRMA staff run the laser round
the clock and can now carry out the multi-hole
drilling operation in just three days. Following a
qualification period, completed in 2010, the
outer liner repair process is currently in the
middle of its industrialisation phase.
Thanks to the acquisition of cutting-edge
technical skills in-house and of suitable indus-
trial equipment, the process paved the way for
substantial cost savings for airlines, which
were no longer forced to buy a new spare part.
It also delivers some substantial gains in terms
of repair lead-times by leapfrogging the time
needed to obtain supplies of critical parts,
which can sometimes cause bottlenecks in the
engine re-assembly process.
Repair shops benefit from this approach,
too, putting them in a comfortable position to
carry out repair development under Design
Organisation Approval to create specific, safe
and reliable repair solutions. In the case of
Electron beam welding technology is used to create new, more effective repairs.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:04 Page 77
78 The Engine Yearbook 2012
repairs to the outer liners, modifications were
made to make it possible to simultaneously
drill the base plate of the outer liner and its
thermal barrier coating.
CRMA is currently continuing this develop-
ment programme so that it can offer the same
product for the GE90-115 powerplant.
New players in the aircraft maintenance
market must also be prepared to gear up for
the emergence of new products and expand
their catalogue of services, while never losing
sight of the maintenance cost reduction imper-
ative. As a result, continually upgrading the
industrial base has to be a priority if an MRO is
to be able to reconcile these demands.
Thoroughly modern repairs
Another way of insourcing capabilities and
creating new ones is to leverage available tech-
nology. At the same time as the architecture of
engine parts has evolved considerably in
recent years, the resources and tools used to
keep parts serviceable are being transformed
and are riding the same technological wave.
AFI KLM E&M rapidly assessed the oppor-
tunities presented by electron beam welding
(EBW) and, undeterred by the considerable
investment required, the MRO’s Amsterdam
engine shop equipped the system in 2010. At
that point, there was no shortage of repair
capability development prospects and these
have now become a reality. With this method,
AFI KLM E&M can safe supports frames, shafts
and similar items. Until very recently, these
repairs were either unavailable or subcon-
tracted out, so that MROs had limited control
over costs and turnaround time (TAT).
Rene Scholten, in charge of engine repairs
development and industrialisation at AFI KLM
E&M, says: “Electron beam welding technology
is used to create new, more effective repairs. It
means we can both re-condition expensive
parts rather than replacing them, and boost
their useful lifespan. For customers, the bene-
fit also shows up in a substantial reduction in
total cost of ownership.”
The technology behind this solution involves
“bombarding” the part being worked on with a
dense beam of electrons on a precise spot
(less than 0.5mm
?
) to create the weld. This is
an automated process carried out in a vacuum
chamber to avoid any oxidation or dust con-
tamination. As a result, it delivers extremely
clean welds that can be repeated at any time
for a standard quality level, without distorting
the part and with a significantly reduced risk of
subsequent cracking.
The system comprises a mobile electron
beam “gun” used in a vacuum chamber, a
manipulator arm, and a high-voltage energy
source. The programmers and welders who oper-
ate the system at AFI KLM E&M have all been
trained to use it and operate the CNC control
panel by manufacturer Sciaky. Deployment was
preceded by unprecedented preparations in the
workshop, with the installation of an air extrac-
tion system and ducting, the deployment of a
150-metre, 300A power cable, and the layout of
an area nine metres square to house the weld-
ing chamber.
“The initial investment is substantial,”
says Rene Scholten. “But the opportunities
opened up by the new technology are ample
justification for the decision. For an MRO like
AFI KLM E&M, it simultaneously represents
the possibility of generating synergies at
repair flow level, adding to our stock of know-
how and skills for the benefit of our staff, and
creating additional workscopes in-house.
Thanks to EBW we are continually developing
new capabilities and can now offer high-tech
work that we wouldn’t be able to offer using
conventional welding techniques. For cus-
tomers, the acquisition of this technology is a
guarantee of lower repair bills and improved
service quality.”
Although engine manufacture has advanced
considerably, meaning extended operational
lifespans, aircraft powerplants are nevertheless
subject to a number of inevitable limitations in
Electron beam welding technology allows expensive parts to be reconditioned rather than replaced.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:04 Page 78
79 The Engine Yearbook 2012
flight situations. In addition to the ability to
adjust their industrial resources (tooling and
repair systems and procedures) MROs are also
able to develop remedial methods that limit part
wear and tear and the need for replacement.
Trim balance, reliable engines,
and lower costs: the magic
formula
Used for the past year and more by AFI KLM
E&M staff on CF6 and CFMI engines, core trim
balancing involves placing OEM-supplied bal-
ance weights inside the engine to reduce vibra-
tion, without the need to completely tear down
the engine. To add the weight, mechanics need
to be able to access the engine by removing an
engine component — either the low pressure
turbine (LPT) or the high pressure compressor
top case — to balance the high pressure shaft.
It’s this second option that is used for CFM56-
7B engines.
The procedure, which did not feature in the
engine manual, was developed in conjunction
with General Electric and has already been
used on 13 engines. Core trim balance is now
an integral part of the AFI KLM E&M capability
portfolio and is also used on the spares in the
group’s engine pool.
“Initially a vibration signature is recorded in
a test cell using an optical light probe and an
electronic signal conditioner which processes
the signal,” says Rob Duivis, AFI KLM E&M sen-
ior powerplant engineer. “A computer program
then identifies the level of vibrations and the
required balance weight location and mass.”
The engine then goes on the ‘hospital line’ at
the Schiphol Engine shop (which carries out
only a limited range of light repairs) for instal-
lation of the calculated balance weights. Finally
the engine will return to the engine test cell for
retesting.
The same procedure is also applied to
engines that fail vibration testing after a shop
visit. “In fact, we designed the process to
reduce the number of test cell rejects due to
vibration after a shop visit,” explains Duivis.
“Increasingly, we are focusing our efforts on
optimising engine build-up processes in order
to minimise imbalance levels and in so doing
reduce vibration that calls for time-consuming
and costly teardowns and retesting.”
For engine operators the process reduces
the need for complete teardown, unless the
engine is near its high time and close to a
scheduled shop visit. Secondly, there is less
need to replace engine parts, TAT is shorter
and costs for airlines are reduced. The average
TAT for an engine that needs balancing follow-
ing a test-cell run-up is two to three weeks
longer. But with core trim balancing, TAT is
reduced to a few days. The savings are mainly
in man hours but above all, the parts are less
exposed to vibration, reducing wear and tear
and keeping the engines flying! ■
Thanks to electron beam
welding we are continually
developing new capabilities
and can now offer high-tech
work that we wouldn’t be able
to offer using conventional
welding techniques.
—Rene Scholten, head of
engine repairs development,
AFI KLM E&M
The technology behind electron beam welding involves bombarding the part being worked on with a dense beam of electrons on a precise spot.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:04 Page 79
80
T
he life of an engine is far from over once
it makes its final journey on an airframe.
Just as there are opportunities to extend
human life through organ donorship, there are
also parts on aircraft engines that can be
reused to bring new life to otherwise unser-
viceable powerplants. This requires complete
teardown of an engine; evaluation of the
installed units; and inspection or rework of an
engine’s LLPs (life limited parts).
The process should also incorporate identi-
fication of components for use in supporting
other engine overhauls or available to be mar-
keted and sold to operators in supporting the
requirements of their line maintenance. Engine
teardown is a coordinated effort that offers
maintenance organisations opportunities for
both internal and external customers.
Once an owner of an aircraft engine makes
the decision to tear down an engine with little
life left, or an engine that requires teardown
because of time/cycle run-out, it must be deter-
mined who is to do the work. There are several
places globally that offer this service but few, if
any, offer teardown of all engine types. It is not
feasible for a company to have such a wide
capability because of the high cost of training,
tooling and acquiring required manuals.
Major carriers generally support their own
fleets and while some outsource what they con-
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine teardown, while not as intense as buildup, is a challenging industry that helps companies
realise millions of dollars in cost savings by making available those parts that still have
serviceable life. It supports both engine buildup and line operations and plays a role in engine
leasing, aircraft leasing and air carrier operations. Joe Mras, general manager of Turbine Support
International, describes the teardown process and the pitfalls awaiting inexperienced operators.
Engine teardown
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:09 Page 80
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82
sider overflow, others also market teardowns if
the engine type corresponds to one on which
that already have capability. Most teardown
facilities specialise in a few models. Some are
teardown facilities only and have no FAA rating,
but there are a few that also are Part 145 cer-
tified and qualified to determine serviceability
and tag parts with 8130’s making them readily
available for use. Other than the major carriers,
teardown in the United States is performed by
companies in various locations such as
Arkansas, Florida, Michigan, and Texas.
While business plans and processes differ
between teardown facilities, the general con-
cept of what has to be done is the same. Prior
to the receipt of an engine, a complete review
of the workscope must be accomplished with
the owner of the engine contracting the tear-
down. Some owners wish only for major mod-
ules be torn down and processed, locally
scrapping those parts not readily marketable.
Others may require that all parts be returned. A
teardown facility must remain flexible and
adapt to the needs and requirements of the
customer as not only are requirements differ-
ent from customer to customer, each customer
will probably have different requirements from
engine to engine.
Receiving an engine for teardown
Once an engine arrives at a teardown facil-
ity, it is usually met by staff who take pictures
of it. The complete array of pictures identifies
the condition of the engine, care given to
engine in transport (tarped, air-ride, shrink
wrapped, etc.), and verification of engine serial
number. Once photos are completed, it is then
offloaded, awaiting induction.
Prior to the induction of an engine into a
facility, the workscope — already defined by the
customer — must be conveyed to the produc-
tion line. A review of the paperwork is per-
formed as confirmation that all items needed
to complete the teardown are readily accessi-
ble and functional. Items such as specific tear-
down instructions, special handling, special
routing, special packaging and parts for the
customer are a must to ensure proper flow of
the teardown.
Once inducted into the facility, an engine
again goes through a series of inspections prior
to having any tools start the disassembly. The
engine’s serial number is again verified, and pic-
tures again taken of the engine while hanging
off the stand. Inventories are taken of the com-
ponents that are easily accessible without dis-
assembly serial numbers verified against
records received with the engine. Any discrep-
ancies must be cleared to ensure traceability of
the components prior to being used on any
other engine. Once this is done, the engine can
then enter into the teardown process.
Teardown is a systematic process that
requires vigilance, patience, mechanical apti-
The Engine Yearbook 2012
The TSI facility in Blytheville.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:09 Page 82
83
tude, proper tooling, and knowledge of not only
the manuals, but how to properly read them.
Failure to do things properly, improper tooling,
lack of professionalism from mechanics, lack
of training, are only a few of the things that, if
present during engine teardown, will result in
delays, damage and increased liability. An
established quality programme will aid in iden-
tification of improvements needed in teardown
induction or other areas such as shipping.
Depending on the needs of customers,
items such as brackets and tubes can be
scrapped locally, while others are identified and
tagged. During the teardown process, the
engine is broken down into modules and each
module is then individually broken down into its
subcomponents for further disassembly.
Proper planning and equipment is key to proper
teardown. Tooling specific to the individual
steps must not be substituted with unapproved
techniques as it will lead to damaged parts,
which may or may not be recoverable.
Once removed, each part is identified,
inventoried, and tagged. Priority parts requiring
special handling are inventoried and processed
at this point or any point beyond this and prior
to general packing and crating of the remainder
of the engine. Parts removed must be segre-
gated by engine serial number and at no time
should parts be allowed to intermingle with
parts from two different engines, regardless of
room constraints. This should be included in a
daily audit by the quality personnel. Facilities
with cleaning lines and NDT (non-destructive
testing) capabilities may elect to start that
process at any point after part removal that
meets shop production flow or customer
requirements.
In a perfect world, everything would be easy
but that is not necessarily the case in engine
disassembly. Some parts need heating while
others require dry ice to cool and contract to
allow removal. If an engine has had an internal
failure, documented procedures are not avail-
able to guide mechanics through disassembly.
Only the knowledge of engines and experience
in teardown will enable mechanics through
completion of the process. At times, especially
with internal failures, approval needs to be
sought from engine owners prior to attempting
undocumented processes to avoid liability
should things go awry. It is during these times
that contact with the customer is essential and
joint thinking might be best for positive results.
Packaging and shipping
As the engine modules are torn down fur-
ther and the teardown nears completion, the
process enters a critical stage: packaging and
crating. Parts handled lovingly through the tear-
down process could easily be damaged if not
properly handled through this final process.
One should not scrimp to save a few bucks
here – it could result in potential damage. The
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Some owners wish only for
major modules be torn down
and processed, locally
scrapping those parts not
readily marketable. Others may
require that all parts be
returned.”
Non-destructive testing.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:09 Page 83
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Teardown facilities that are licensed Part
145 facilities have gone a step further than
uncertified facilities: as parts are removed and
cleaned, NDT is performed where required,
allowing the facility to deem the part servicea-
ble if it passes testing. Of course, those shops
also come under continued scrutiny from the
FAA and EASA (if certified). These visits and
audits add another add another guarantee that
the facility has both adequate quality and train-
ing programmes in place – a plus for any cus-
tomer.
The teardown market
Keeping abreast of market needs is a key to
the survival and growth of a teardown facility.
Teardown facilities make major investments to
support their business plans and the business
plans of their customers. Tooling specific to
each engine type coupled with the cost of cur-
rent publications costs hundreds of thousands
of dollars for each engine type. To tool up for
engines on dying fleets or to choose an engine
type that already has fierce competition for
teardown and fail to gather enough customers
to support tooling costs, could lead to the
demise of a company. While competitive, there
is plenty of room in the teardown industry for
teardown facilities to help each other with
loaned tooling and even referrals if one party is
not able to meet immediate requirements of
customers.
Those companies that do choose the right
model can expect long-term gains as teardown
facilities will continue to serve a vital role as
long as there is a need for used, serviceable
and reworked parts. ■
key word here is potential. If there is potential
for a part to be damaged, it is probably not
being packaged correctly. This is the final step
in the quality process as prior to packing and
preparation for shipment, shipping personnel
must ensure that everything is properly tagged,
that tags are complete, and all parts are prop-
erly recorded in the box or crate. Again, this is
handled according to the individual needs of
the customer, who might require drop shipping
or packing by module. All larger parts must be
secured in place to prevent movement during
shipping. It is crazy not to put an extra $5-worth
of shipping material around a part that will cost
$100,000 upwards if damaged.
The final step is shipping. Once the truck
arrives to ship parts out, care must again be
taken to get all parts inventoried and secured.
Pictures again are a good idea to make sure
items left the facility in a favourable condition.
Training is a necessity. There are no
mechanic licenses required to do engine tear-
down. There is no requirement to be a Part 145
facility. That does not lessen the need for
proper training to adequately do engine tear-
down. A customer has a right to, and should
require documentation to indicate that the per-
sonnel that are accomplishing teardown for
them are properly trained. Training in use of part
identification and manual use will result in fewer
errors on documentation (which could affect
traceability), reduced delays, and increased pro-
ductivity. The savings from that are best for all.
Damaged parts due to improper tool training
has been proven to be costly. Also, well-trained
staff have higher morale, resulting in higher
quality and increased productivity.
84
Failure to do things properly,
improper tooling, lack of
professionalism from
mechanics, lack of training, are
only a few of the things that, if
present during engine
teardown, will result in delays,
damage and increased
liability.”
An engine arrives at the TSI facility.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:09 Page 84
FPA_check 110_ATEM 110 21/02/2011 09:29 Page 3
86
W
ith a global fleet of more than 4,000
in-service engines, the type is obvi-
ously of significant interest to engine
repair shops. Moreover, there is still an impres-
sive order backlog and the IAE manufacturing
consortium of Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce
has decided to bring out an even more fuel-effi-
cient variant, the V2500 SelectTwo. For that rea-
son, Lufthansa Technik puts a lot of effort into
devising ways of steadily improving the on-wing
time of the engine through intelligent proce-
dures. Components that are critical to the life
cycle of the engine are identified using the lat-
est methods, such as CFD analysis, so that the
reasons for any excessive wear and tear can be
ascertained. On the basis of a wealth of knowl-
edge about the complex interactions inside the
engine, it is possible to develop repair methods
that reduce wear and tear in the long run, bring-
ing cost advantages to the operator.
The maintenance of an engine is determined
by three main factors: life-limited parts (LLPs),
wear-induced engine removals and unscheduled
engine removals. The LLP limitation means that
a component is only certified for a maximum
number of cycles (takeoffs and landings), and
when that limit is reached it has to be replaced.
The main indicator of the second factor, wear-
induced engine removal, is a decline in exhaust
gas temperature (EGT) margin. The art lies in
designing an optimal maintenance schedule for
the customer that utilises the full life of LLPs
while at the same time scheduling any part
replacements to coincide with wear-induced
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Lufthansa Technik’s involvement with the V2500-A5 goes back many years. The first engine in
the series, serial number V10001, flew for a short time on a Lufthansa aircraft back in 1989.
The first engine to be used on a long-term basis at Lufthansa bore the serial number V10018 —
and since then the IAE engine has been a firm feature of the portfolio of engines that Lufthansa
Technik maintains.
Streamlining V2500
maintenance
engine removals. For example, it may be sensi-
ble to actually replace an LLP before its certified
life has expired if the engine has to be taken
apart anyway for wear-induced reasons a little
earlier. An optimal maintenance plan also takes
into account the circumstances under which an
engine is operated. The climatic zone in which
the engine spends most of its time flying has a
significant impact on its condition. The manner
of use, for example the average running time, is
a major factor in determining wear and tear.
Maintaining lessor and lessee
value
Lufthansa Technik’s engineers have done a
great deal workscoping on the V2500. The
company has been maintaining the engines of
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:22 Page 86
87 The Engine Yearbook 2012
its sister company, Lufthansa Passage, over
their entire life cycles for decades. Based on
positive experience and synergy effects arising
from this all-round service, experts have drawn
up a requirements profile for the typical lease
engine. They were interested in whether a
maintenance plan would produce lower overall
costs over the full life cycle of a lease engine
compared with the situation where mainte-
nance is performed on a piecemeal basis by
individual lessees.
Normally an engine has to meet a previously
agreed condition at the end of the lease period.
It is logical that the lessee wants the mainte-
nance provider to perform the minimum work
necessary to meet that condition, though every
engine user optimises things for himself. But
as we know, the sum of the individual optima is
not the same as the global optimum. Lufthansa
Technik’s engineers demonstrated this by
examining the life cycle more closely.
In the investigation the engineers made the
realistic assumption that in the course of its
life the typical engine would pass through the
hands of five lessees, who would fly it in differ-
ent climate zones with different flight profiles.
Such an engine would normally visit the shop
five times in the course of its life: one visit at
the end of each leasing period plus one addi-
tional visit during a lease period. Each mainte-
nance event costs a considerable amount of
money.
If one now draws up an optimal mainte-
nance plan to cover the entire service life of a
lease engine, one discovers that only four shop
visits are actually necessary. It even pays the
lessee not to take the engine into the shop at
all during the term of his lease.
In short, experts established that consider-
able amounts of money and time could be
saved if maintenance follows a plan designed
to cover the full service life of the engine. In the
case of the V2500 this cuts the costs by 20
per cent. A further 10 per cent is saved on
LLPs. The lessor can pass the cost savings
directly on to its customer, enabling it to offer
more competitive prices — an advantage that
Lufthansa Technik tries to convince leasing
companies of.
Lufthansa Technik offers an ‘advanced
workscoping’ service where it assures the cus-
tomer that only the work that produces the
maximum benefit to that customer will actually
be performed. One element of this is the surgi-
cal strike, a minimal intervention in case of
unforeseen minor damage. With the surgical
strike, instead of a major shop visit only the
work that is essential is carried out. In the case
of the V2500, for example, this procedure is
used to replace bearing three, which in the past
has had to be replaced due to production prob-
lems. Another very important element of
advanced workscoping is predictive planning.
Here, the aim is to delay the next scheduled
shop visit as much as possible by performing
certain workscopes in advance.
Combustors and fuel nozzles
It is not just clever workscoping that makes
the difference; equally important is the engi-
neering capability to develop innovative, new
methods of work and repair procedures. One
example here is the V2500 combustor.
This has proved to be a limiting factor in the
past, especially on aircraft that operate in
desert regions. On the basis of a full inspection
of the combustor, operators are regularly forced
to send engines to the shop ahead of sched-
ule. Lufthansa Technik quickly established that
engines that are operated in desert regions are
much more heavily affected by wear in the com-
bustor than engines flown in more climatically
moderate zones. But no one could explain the
reason for the more extensive wear. Specialists
therefore decided to perform a simulation
analysis to investigate the flow behavior. In a
lengthy and complex procedure engineers were
able to find out what is actually going on in the
combustor.
It turned out that in the forward area of the
combustor the engine burns the fuel too ‘rich’,
as they say in the trade. If kerosene burns too
rich, the remaining fuel burns elsewhere in the
engine. This might be because the air distribu-
tion has been designed in an unfavorable way
or because the fuel is not sufficiently atom-
Delicate work during a V2500 overhaul.
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88 The Engine Yearbook 2012
The maintenance of an engine
is determined by three main
factors: life-limited parts,
wear-induced engine removals
and unscheduled engine
removals.
ised. As a result certain areas get too hot so
that damage is more likely. In the case of
engines that are operated in the desert, one
further difficulty is that the external tempera-
ture is higher but the air density is lower. This
means that for the same thrust demand
engines are thermodynamically less efficient.
More fuel is required, which only accentuates
the problem of inhomogeneous combustion.
That is to say, the damage sustained by
engines operated in the desert is much greater
than in engines operated in other regions.
The outcome of the simulation was identical
to the situation found on the actual component:
temperatures significantly above the sustainable
material limit caused massive damage to the
combustor. As a result the engine has to go into
the shop more often than is actually necessary.
“The analysis of the combustor is a good
example of Lufthansa Technik’s approach. We
aren’t just satisfied with following the OEM
requirements in an expert manner, we want to
understand the engine. For only if we know the
reasons for particular findings can we look for
solutions,” explains Christian Werner-Spatz,
systems engineer and specialist in engine per-
formance at Lufthansa Technik. “This means
that we occasionally put in extra effort.”
Moreover, additional material analysis of the
damaged parts has shown that calcium mag-
nesium aluminum silicon (CMAS) also plays an
important role. This mixture occurs to a greater
extent in desert sand. At the extreme tempera-
tures experienced in the combustor in those
parts, CMAS forms deposits, melts and solidi-
fies. But the actual work of the engine special-
ists of Lufthansa Technik — the development
of new coatings — has only just begun at this
point. For it is not enough simply to know why
certain places are particularly susceptible to
damage. As a maintainer is powerless to
change the fact that the fuel burns unevenly,
solutions have to be found to make the com-
bustor more robust and hence more durable.
Moreover, the new coating must reliably with-
stand CMAS. A special coating (patent pend-
ing) developed at Lufthansa Technik now
prevents damage caused by CMAS.
Another vulnerability identified in the V2500
over the years has been fuel nozzle guides.
Problems are regularly discovered here during
inspections. In particular, the ring on fuel noz-
zles is susceptible to damage due to high tem-
peratures in the engine interior. To repair this
component, engineers have developed a coat-
ing that protects the component and also a
repair procedure under which the damaged ring
can be removed and replaced by a part devel-
oped in-house – a Spare Part Alternative Detail
(SPAD). Because it is certified as a develop-
ment organisation, Lufthansa Technik is able to
manufacture this SPAD in-house and weld it on.
Lufthansa Technik also draws on its wealth
of accumulated knowledge when drawing up
Line maintenance at LHT’s Munich base.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:22 Page 88
89 The Engine Yearbook 2012
chemical baths need to be held in stock so that
costs can be avoided.
The V2500 is maintained in the pulse line
at Lufthansa Technik’s headquarters in
Hamburg, Germany. This hangar, which started
production in 2009 applying lean principles, is
designed as a multi-functional production facil-
ity to overhaul engines of the CFM56 and
V2500 families. Starting off with the CFM56-
5A, -5B, -5C and -7B, at the beginning of 2010
the IAE engine was introduced. The Lufthansa
Technik Group’s second competence centre for
V2500 maintenance is Lufthansa Technik
Airmotive Ireland in Dublin. Engineers at both
sites are constantly working on improvements
to the benefit of customers, with the aim of
enhancing engine performance and at the
same time reducing costs. Recently bmi
became another long-term customer for V2500
fleet support and as such will benefit from
Lufthansa Technik cross-functional know-how
and a wealth of experience too. ■
maintenance plans for its customers, espe-
cially for customers with desert operations. For
example, this customer group is advised to
send engines to the shop as soon as the first
sign of damage appears. As long as the
defects are still only minor, individual parts are
repairable. And a repair is always cheaper than
installing a new part. In addition, this proce-
dure prevents damage in the combustor from
causing secondary damage in the turbine, the
most expensive component of the engine.
Parts of the high-pressure turbine are non-
repairable or at best can only be repaired to a
limited extent and therefore often have to be
replaced by highly expensive new parts.
Cutting turnaround time
Lufthansa Technik has demonstrated its
know-how over the last few years with another
offering. All V2500 engines had to comply with
an AD by July 2011 to eliminate damage from
oil in the turbine. Normally the manufacturer
requires a shop visit to implement this exten-
sive modification. The work entailed comprises
one internal and one external work package,
together covering 19 service bulletins. Working
with the manufacturer, Lufthansa Technik
offered to perform the external part of the mod-
ification at affected customers’ sites. This
meant that the modification was carried out on-
site and also on-wing, dispensing with the need
for time-consuming removal of the engine. It
took the Airline Support Team (AST) who spe-
cialise in this kind of work just 48 hours or less
to complete the work on each of approximately
40 engines. As a result, customers were able
to save eight days — time in which they did not
have to use a replacement engine as their own
engine was already back on the wing — and
hence a lot of money. For it takes eight days
longer to dismantle the engine, transport it to
the workshop, have it repaired there, then
transport it back and reinstall it.
In the repair of V2500 engines Lufthansa
Technik also draws on experience gained from
the overhaul of other engine types. For exam-
ple, many standard processes can be trans-
ferred from one type to another to their mutual
benefit. On the PW4000 the manufacturer
requires water jet stripping to remove the
abradable coat on the shrouds from the high-
pressure turbine. On the V2500, on the other
hand, a chemical procedure is specified.
However, experience gained from this example
has shown that water is a better way of remov-
ing the coating than chemicals as cleaning is
quicker and more thorough. As a development
organisation, Lufthansa Technik uses this
knowledge and is now able to treat the shrouds
more effectively with water. This results not
only in better throughput times, but fewer
Tack welding during the overhaul of a V2500 combustor.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:22 Page 89
90
O
ver the past 12 years, Kelly Aviation
Center in San Antonio, Texas, has devel-
oped jet engine maintenance capabili-
ties for five different engine lines. For 2011,
Kelly has set its sights on distinguishing itself
in the CF6-80 market. Next year it plans to do
the same in the CFM56 market.
The CF6 was GE Aviation’s first commercial
widebody engine, and is now 40 years old.
There is an installed base of 4,500, including
about 3,000 of the -80C2 series. The overall
market for the type includes five versions pow-
ering a dozen basic aircraft and several sub-
types, ranging from the McDonnell Douglas
DC-10-10 that introduced the CF6-6 to the
world, to the latest versions on Airbus’ A330-
200/300.
GE has said it sees another 10 years of pro-
duction for the -80C2 and 15 years for the -
80E, reflecting new aircraft sales and spare
engine requirements.
Entry into the CF6-80 market by Kelly was a
deliberate move, based on a carefully devel-
oped business plan. “We capitalised on our
five years of success with the CF6-50 engine,”
explains Chuck Artymovich, president of Kelly
Aviation Center. “The next logical engine line to
tackle was the CF6-80. Our major challenge
was to change Kelly from a military model to a
blended military-commercial business model.”
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Originally a military MRO centre, Kelly Aviation Center has evolved commercial capabilities to
complement the work that it does for government customers. This year and next the company is
adding two new engine types to its maintenance line, the CF6-80 and CFM56.
Moving into CF6-80
maintenance
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:25 Page 90
Announcing another addition to Kelly Aviation Center’s long list of services! Kelly is now providing maintenance, repair, and
overhaul on the CF6-80 engine, which is what our customers want to hear. They already know what Kelly delivers – longer
time-on-wing, quick turn times, and highly customized, affordable business solutions. And now, customers can expect the
same for their CF6-80 engines. Kelly Aviation Center is the MRO facility you’ve been searching for. To find out more about
Kelly, drop by our website, or give us a call.
OVERHAULING EXPECTATIONS
FOR THE CF6-80.
+1.210.827.5275 www.kellyaviationcenter.com
FPA_check ATEM113_ATEM 113 06/10/2011 09:56 Page 3
92
Since the beginning in 1999, Kelly has
established a strong reputation with the US mil-
itary for service, on-time performance, and sig-
nificantly increased time-on-wing for the TF39,
another engine from which the CF6-80 is
derived. Adding the CF6-80 line meant trans-
forming the shop floor and military-oriented
processes so that both commercial and mili-
tary customers would be efficiently served.
“We’ve even exceeded their expectations,”
says Frank Cowan, commercial aviation serv-
ices director. “It is an unusual accomplishment
to be able to perform MRO on six — soon
seven — commercial and military engine lines
all in one location. But we are doing it and our
customers are happy with the added value of a
longer average time on wing.”
“For the transformation to be successful,
we had to change a lot of what we do in pro-
duction, but also in marketing, contracting, sup-
ply chain, just about everything,” adds Frank
McCall, production operations manager. “What
helped us in production is that Kelly mechanics
are very experienced. The CF6-80 engine is a
derivative of the engines they have been work-
ing for years. The tooling and the equipment
are much the same.”
The same logic was applied when the deci-
sion was made to enter the CFM56 market by
early 2012. “Kelly has been building essen-
tially the same core for F110 engines for the
past seven years, and performing MRO on that
engine, as well,” says Artymovich. “Once the
decision was made, we acted quickly to acquire
CFM56 tooling and equipment.”
Keys to a successful
transformation
Besides building upon years of expertise in
engine lines well-established at Kelly, the com-
pany kept customer service in mind, while plan-
ning a new shop floor layout and developing the
Kelly Performance System, a new management
approach that dramatically speeds up material
flow and significantly increases engine output.
The basic principals of the Kelly
Performance System are understanding
demand, establishing control and managing
pace. A highly disciplined method of maintain-
ing material flow at a consistent pace — largely
based on the Theory of Constraints: the idiom
‘a chain is only as strong as its weakest link’
— controls flow and, through efficiencies,
greater speed is obtained through the shop.
This is especially important to manage well
when you are dealing with multiple product
lines using shared resources. Couple
enhanced material flow with a new master
scheduling system that integrates all product
lines and the results are impressive.
Even in the face of one customer’s demand
surge of up to 50 per cent or an additional 33
shop visits at the beginning of last year, Kelly
was positioned to meet that demand with no
changes to schedule and cost and no impact
on other customers.
In addition to fast and reliable turn times,
customers have also expressed satisfaction
with Kelly’s flexibility. “Judging from customer
reaction, Kelly has added another dimension to
the term ‘customised solutions’,” explains Ron
Moure, customer service manager at Kelly
Aviation Center. “We are very open to working
with our customers on whatever they want done
— from a complete teardown and overhaul to a
very limited workscope.”
The Engine Yearbook 2012
The shop floor at Kelly.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:25 Page 92
93
That philosophy has proven to be cost
effective and has improved affordability for all
of Kelly’s customers. Although Kelly has stan-
dard workscopes customers can choose
from, “We also provide flexible, highly cus-
tomised workscopes that target specific
maintenance issues which can reduce main-
tenance costs and return value to cus-
tomers,” says Moure. “Plus, our workforce is
cross-trained on several engine lines, so we
can move crews around, as needed, to keep
engines on schedule.”
Moure also believes that the working envi-
ronment and the open relationship between
management and employees have helped him
provide quicker responses to customer needs,
increased efficiencies, and fostered innova-
tions because managers work closely with
direct, hands-on employees to develop innova-
tive solutions to problem solving and imple-
ment many of their ideas.
Field service to the rescue
Another key offering of Kelly Aviation Center
is its experienced field service teams. Field
teams routinely return engines to service at
customer locations, avoiding shop visits that
can drive additional work requirements and
costs, not to mention the safety of spare
engines that result from a quicker return to
service time. Customers save money by avoid-
ing a shop visit for tasks like boroblending, trim
balancing, fan and compressor case replace-
ment, and other repairs. Kelly’s field service
teams have been of particular value to interna-
tional customers who also benefit from the
avoidance of costly overseas shipping costs
that alone can equate to as much as the field
service call itself.
“Kelly’s got the talent, the flexibility, and the
business stability to deliver what the customer
is looking for,” states Artymovich. “We do excel-
lent, high-quality work, quickly, and affordably
— basically what all engine MRO customers
are looking for. Our CF6-50 customers eagerly
awaited our entry into the CF6-80 market and
those with CFM56 engines are anxiously look-
ing forward to having an alternative repair
source.” ■
Kelly Aviation Center is an affiliate of Lockheed
Martin Corporation and is considered a centre
of excellence for aircraft engine maintenance,
repair and overhaul, currently providing serv-
ices for engines that power the DC-10, 747-
400, 767, A300, A310, A330, C-5, C-130
Hercules, P-3 Orion, F-16 Fighting Falcon, and
U-2 Dragon Lady.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
We capitalised on our five
years of success with the
CF6-50 engine. The next logical
engine line to tackle was the
CF6-80.
—Chuck Artymovich, president,
Kelly Aviation Center.
A new performance system allows Kelly to maintain efficient material flow.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:25 Page 93
94
W
ith more than 90 years of history,
OGMA dates back to the creation of
the Parque de Material Aeronáutico
(Aeronautical Material Park) in 1918. Ten years
later, it changed its name to Oficinas Gerais de
Material Aeronáutico (General Workshops for
Aeronautical Material), which was kept until
1994. Known as OGMA since 1928, in 1994
the company kept its acronym while changing
its status from a Portuguese air force depot to
a public limited company. It has been known
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Building on links with Portugal’s former colony of Brazil, Portuguese MRO OGMA has helped
transform itself from a purely military maintenance company one servicing the Embraer
ERJ135/145 line of regional aircraft and their Rolls-Royce AE 3007 engines. In recent years, as
The Engine Yearbook discovers, the company has honed its commercial capabilities with the
introduction of production philosophies originally developed in Japan.
Regional engine
maintenance in Portugal
since then as OGMA — Indústria Aeronáutica
de Portugal.
In 2005, Embraer and EADS acquired 65
per cent of OGMA’s shares, helping to boost
OGMA’s global expansion and establishing it as
a leading company in the aircraft maintenance,
aerostructures, aeronautical engineering and
fleet management services markets.
Though the company is now active in both
civil and military markets, important mile-
stones in its history included its first interna-
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FPA_check ATEM113_ATEM 113 17/10/2011 13:24 Page 3
96 The Engine Yearbook 2012
tional contracts — with the US Navy in 1955
and the German Air Force in 1962 — and the
assembly of the first Portuguese satellite in
1993.
From military turboprop to
regional jet engines
OGMA’s dedicated engine business pro-
vides a broad spectrum of MRO services for a
range of commercial and military aircraft
engines, though regardless of the task its team
of engineers and technicians always targets a
balance of quality, operational performance,
overall repair cost and time on-wing, while still
offering its customers a one-stop shop solu-
tion.
The company is an authorised maintenance
centre for Embraer and Rolls-Royce and holds
FAR 145 and EASA Part 145 repair station cer-
tifications; EASA PART 21G production organi-
sation approval; EASA PART 21J design
organisation approval; CAMO (Continuing
Airworthiness Management Organisation)
approval and quality certificates including
AS9100, ISO 9001-2008 Quality Management
and AQAP 2110.
OGMA’s initial contact with Rolls-Royce
came in the 1980s, overhauling T-56 engines
on C130 Hercules and P-3 Orion aircraft. It
also developed repair and overhaul capabilities
for the Rolls-Royce quick engine change assem-
blies, plus their accessories and components.
As one of the leading independent service cen-
tres for T-56 engines, developing its repair
activity strictly under the International
Airworthiness Regulations umbrella, OGMA can
offer original manufacturer (OEM) parts as well
as parts from other authorised and certified
suppliers, according to client preference and
request. Whatever the customer s choice, all
repair work is carried out according to manu-
facturer and operator procedures, using up-to-
date OEM manuals and other related technical
publications.
Since the 1980s the company has devel-
oped the capability to carry out a set of Rolls-
Royce-approved engine part repairs as well as
to propose different technological repair solu-
tions to the Rolls-Royce engineering technical
committee (including approval waiving), in order
to minimise parts replacement, thus minimis-
ing engine overhaul repair costs for its cus-
tomers.
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97 The Engine Yearbook 2012
“OGMA is proud of its ability to solve most
technical problems, to offer the most economi-
cal solution and to provide all the necessary
assistance to support our customers be at the
customer’s site or anywhere else in the world
according to customer request,” says an OGMA
spokesman.
Under its CAMO certification the MRO is
also able to offer a comprehensive engine
health and monitoring engineering services pro-
gramme in order to maximise engine opera-
tional on-wing time and minimise downtime for
its customers.
The Portuguese company’s civil engine
breakthrough arrived in 1993 when it was cer-
tified as a Rolls-Royce authorised maintenance
centre (AMC) for the Rolls-Royce AE 2100
series of turboprop engines used on the SAAB
2000 regional turboprop (as well as military
transports). It also became, at the time, the
only independent European AMC for all com-
mercial and military variants of the Rolls-Royce
AE 3007 turbofan engines, which power
Embraer ERJ135 and ERJ145 regional jets. It
was one of five AMCs which were established
around the world for these engines.
Although 50-seat jets are regarded as old
and relatively inefficient nowadays, a huge num-
ber still remain in service, with Embraer
ERJ135/145 types forming the backbone of
many US regional operators’ fleets. Being an
Embraer AMC for the ERJ145, OGMA has
repaired a large number of AE 3007A engines
for both civil and military operators, throughout
Europe, North America and Asia. Its capability
to fully overhaul AE 3007 engines, to service
the ERJ135/145’s airframe and components,
and to perform landing gear overhauls, makes
OGMA one of the few MROs in the world to
offer a one-stop-shop solution for ERJ 135/145
operators.
Facilities and philosophies
With a total area of 400,000sqm and a cov-
ered surface of 126,000sqm, OGMA dedicates
more than 21,000sqm to its engine shops.
This dedicated area, with 6 engine test
benches, allows OGMA to cover different
aspects of engine total support, including: a
full overhaul capability; removal and installation
of engines into the Quick Engine Change
Assembly (QECA) unit; QECA maintenance and
repair; engine testing either on-wing or in one
of six test cells rated up to 30,000lbs of thrust
Passion for Details
The Fine Art of MRO Services
‘More than Repair and Overhaul‘
That is part of our service philosophy as a globally
recognized company with a substantial portfolio
of MRO Services on GE’s CF34 turbofan engines,
P&WC’s PW100 and PW150 turboprop engines
as well as PW901A APUs.
All our efforts are focused on one target: provide
services at highest quality levels, increase efficiency
through innovation and ultimately keep your aircraft
where they naturally belong: in the air.
We offer our services
24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Just call +49 (0) 172 620 35 03
Lufthansa Technik AERO Alzey
Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 10
55232 Alzey, Germany
Phone +49 (0) 67 31 497 - 0
Fax +49 (0) 67 31 497 - 197
lhaero@lhaero.com
www.lhaero.com
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:28 Page 97
98 The Engine Yearbook 2012
cells; engineering support and fleet manage-
ment under its CAMO certification; engine
health monitoring; borescoping; repair and
overhaul of propellers, valve and pump hous-
ings, and engine AC Generators; electric har-
ness repairs; fuel nozzle repair and testing;
non-destructive testing; dimensional control
with co-ordinate measuring machine in con-
trolled environment installations; rotating com-
ponent balancing; repair of parts by welding,
machining, electrolytic treatment, thermal
spray processes such as HVOF, grit blasting,
painting, heat treatment and stress relieving;
and repair, overhaul and testing of fuel,
hydraulic and pneumatic systems in purpose-
built installations.
Since 2009 traditional engine repair and
overhaul processes developed at OGMA since
the 1970s have been deeply and thoroughly
revised according to a lean philosophy and pro-
duction preparation processes associated with
Japan’s Kaizen system, which emphasises
teamwork, personal discipline, improved
morale, quality circles and employee-based
suggestions for improvement. The changes
comprised a detailed analysis of all the factors
that supported OGMA’s final value proposal for
the customer. In 2009 the company introduced
Continuing Improvement Teams (CITs) to look
for ways to maintain and build on quality
improvement processes whilst simultaneously
reducing operational costs.
The work led to a complete transformation
of material and information processes via new
focuses on human interaction and efficiency, in
order to simultaneously obtain the maximum
quality at the minimum turn-around time (TAT)
and cost for the customer.
Having improved the engine process quality
standards, the direct results perceived until
now have been a reduction in engine TAT of
roughly 35 per cent and an expected gain of an
extra 15 per cent in the second half of 2011.
Notably OGMA s engine customers are report-
ing increased satisfaction with OGMA Engine
Services.
In 2011, OGMA’s shift from a company
established to support state military aviation to
one operating in the commercial sphere is evi-
dent on the shop floor, where a line concept
philosophy has taken hold, with the aid of very
strong visual signing controls. Interaction of
information and parts with the warehouse has
changed significantly, based on a totally
renewed and managed kitting area, where
parts shortages are avoided through part pro-
curement plans that aim to acquire missing
part ‘just in time’. Additionally, support staff in
engineering, programming and control are ever-
present on the shop floor to provide direct and
pro-active support to production workers.
Finally, engine process documentation, its pro-
cedures and OGMA s ERP system have also
been transformed accordingly. ■
OGMA’s initial contact with
Rolls-Royce came in the
1980s, overhauling T-56
engines on C130 Hercules and
P-3 Orion aircraft.”
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:28 Page 98
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100
A
s the commercial airline industry
rebounds from the economic downturn,
passenger traffic is projected to rise six
per cent for the year, with similar annual growth
rates for 2012 through 2014. Profitability, how-
ever, is arguably more challenging than ever,
despite projected revenue growth.
Thus reliability and maintainability
becomes crucial issues for operators seeking
to keep a lid on costs. In 2007 Aero Gear
developed new repairs for aerospace power
drive system gear teeth that resulted in a 50-
65 per cent recovery rate, depending on
engine application, of gears that would previ-
ously have been replaced. Its trademarked
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Rising fuel prices and the cost of maintaining ageing fleets are driving new initiatives to cut
operating costs and increase aircraft availability. At the forefront of these efforts are repair and
overhaul activities, which are full of opportunities for time and money savings. Aero Gear
describes how to maximise the life of engine gearboxes.
‘Tough Tooth’ technology is now being used to
extend the useful life of gears.
Gearbox maintenance and repair
Before the development of the gear tooth
repairs, engine manuals had very few provisions
for reworking or repairing gear tooth surfaces.
Unlike bearing journals and other surfaces where
blending, machining, plating and grinding repairs
were permitted to be done by qualified overhaul
facilities, gear teeth were limited to visual inspec-
tions and, more often than not, a “when in doubt
throw it out” criteria was applied by the inspector.
Why the dramatic difference between a gear
tooth and a journal? Unlike journals, a gear
Staying in gear
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:42 Page 100
101 The Engine Yearbook 2012
tooth has a shape, or profile, that can only be
generated and measured by specialised gear
manufacturing equipment operated by highly
experienced personnel. The profile allows the
maximum transfer of power with the least
amount of damaging sliding and abrasion of
contacting surfaces. Imperfections to these
profiles from its original design specification
can dramatically reduce the life of the gear and
jeopardise the length of time between overhaul.
Of course, where there is challenge there is
opportunity. Aero Gear, a supplier to the aero-
space aftermarket industry, observed the gears
that had been sent in for overhaul and repair
per the engine manuals, and made several
assessments for recovery using tooth repairs.
Firstly, depending on engine model, salvage
rates range from 50-65 per cent when tooth
damage is identified. Salvage results save cus-
tomers on the lead-time required to purchase
replacement gears, as well as on the cost of
purchasing replacement gears, which can
extend into the tens of thousands of dollars. In
2009 Aero Gear found that roughly a fifth of
gears received demonstrated some form of
tooth damage and in 2010 that number rose to
30 per cent.
By applying its Tough Tooth technology, Aero
Gear successfully certified the tooth repair
process and received FAA certification and
OEM approval for specific engines applications
in 2007.
Tough Tooth Technology
Tough Tooth technology is a process devel-
oped by Aero Gear that leverages commercially
available technologies to provide customised
solutions for the design and manufacture of
gears and geared systems. Rather than apply-
ing a one-size-fits-all approach to design using
a standard like AGMA, it considers the cus-
tomer’s end requirements. For example, it
takes into account the development cost, unit
production cost, desired life, application, noise,
materials, environmental considerations, preci-
sion and weight.
The process prioritises the above require-
ments according to customer specifications.
So, a land-based power generation application
might have a high reliability requirement, but
not be so concerned about weight. An aviation
application will have both a high reliability
requirement and a challenging weight target.
Often the solution requires a custom modifica-
Before the development of the
gear tooth repairs, engine
manuals had very few
provisions for reworking or
repairing gear tooth surfaces.”
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 09/11/2011 11:15 Page 101
102 The Engine Yearbook 2012
tion of the standard profile to achieve the per-
formance target. Whatever the case, Tough
Tooth technology will yield a design that meets
the technical requirements in a cost-effective
manner.
On the manufacturing side, Tough Tooth
produces designs that flow in production.
Every gear design is subjected to a pro-
ducibility review to ensure that it can be
processed through lean flow lines in a pre-
dictable and cost-effective manner. Tough
Tooth also takes advantage of life-enhancing
technologies like Isotropic Superfinishing
(ISF) in combination with complex machining
processes to produce gears with superior per-
formance. Gear tooth geometries are not uni-
formly abraded during ISF processing, and
depending on the OEM tolerance require-
ments for the profile, a part that is within
specification before ISF may be out of specifi-
cation after. Tough Tooth methods assess the
variation in material removal during ISF and
Aero Gear can change the final machining
methods to compensate for the non-uniform
material removal during ISF. This is one exam-
ple of the flexibility of Tough Tooth®technol-
ogy to produce gears that meet the most
demanding requirements.
The repair process
When Aero Gear considered the opportunity
to repair gear teeth it was logical to apply Tough
Tooth technology to the task. The challenge
was to make the gear profile conform to OEM
tolerance limits after restoring the surface to
specification requirements. In many cases the
gears that arrived at Aero Gear for overhaul dis-
played surface wear and damage ranging from
scuffing and discoloration to pits and dings
from corrosion or mishandling. Under the exist-
ing repair manual requirements the disparities
that could be addressed were limited to those
that could be remedied with cleaning or spe-
cific localised blending. Many of the gears did
not meet this requirement and were deemed as
non-serviceable units, resulting in the cost of a
replacement gear. Our engineers examined
some of the gears that were being identified as
non-repairable under the existing repair manual
requirements and concluded that by using our
knowledge of manufacturing processes, many
of these gears could be recovered.
The first step in the gear tooth repair
process is an assessment of the condition of
the teeth and measurement of the profile. High-
precision profilometers are used to measure
the average surface roughness and the heights
and depths of the asperities on the surface.
Profile measurements are made using special-
ized CMMs, showing not only the conformance
of the profile to the standard, but also the vari-
ation in relative spacing and the tooth thick-
ness. These measures are critically important
to determining whether or not sufficient mate-
rial exists on the gear teeth to properly repair
within OEM specifications. It is a complex prob-
lem to try to assess the best repair scheme
setup that can remove the asperities within the
physical limits of the gear geometry, but one
that can be overcome with our technology and
historical knowledge. The repair may require
modifications to the profile (still within OEM
specification limits) that can only be accom-
plished using customisable tooling and equip-
ment.
Once the damage to the gear teeth has
been assessed and a plan developed for recov-
ery of the gear, the actual repair process
begins. Gear teeth are processed through com-
plex machining operations and measured for
dimensional accuracy after each step. The sur-
face is also assessed visually, and if necessary
inspected with specialised measuring equip-
ment to determine whether surface damage
has been removed. If the surface is success-
fully restored through the repair process,
achieving both the dimensional and surface fin-
Before and after shots of gear teeth repaired with Tough Tooth.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:42 Page 102
103 The Engine Yearbook 2012
ish of the OEM specification requirements, the
repair is considered complete. If damage
remains once the OEM engine manual toler-
ances have been reached, then the gear would
be identified as non-repairable.
The ISF process has substantial benefits
other than selective, precision removal of small
quantities of material. Data has shown that the
surface finish achieved by ISF, which can reach
as low as 2 µ, can improve the fatigue life for
contact surfaces and significantly reduce the
noise level of the gearbox. These benefits have
been established in research for other geared
systems in both fixed-wing accessory and
rotary wing power gear applications.
Quantifying the benefits of ISF for extending the
life of repaired gears remains to be deter-
mined, but even without the data the OEMs and
operators are looking to take advantage of the
benefits of ISF in new designs, existing produc-
tion, and repairs.
Certified repairs and future
developments
To date Aero Gear has successfully certified
repairs on spur gears, bevel and spiral bevel
gear teeth in engine main, angle and accessory
gearboxes for the fixed and rotor wing aircraft
industry. Several of the Aero Gear FAA approved
repairs are certified through the OEM repair
engine manuals as well as DER for specific air-
lines and engine applications. In addition to
these repairs there are also FAA certified
repairs using ISF. Aero Gear also works with its
customers — who previously relied on replace-
ment — to develop repairs that allow for gear
recovery of material that demonstrates non-
serviceable wear or damage.
In conclusion, we are dedicated to develop-
ing processes and technology to assist with
customer-specific requirements. Current devel-
opments have offered customers reduced cost,
reduced lead time and extended part life.
Aero Gear continues to work on new meth-
ods of repairing gears. In the near future
these may include alternatives methods to
plating. The process has the potential to
replace material that is at the same hardness
as the base material, and a hardness that
equals a carburised surface without heat
treatment of the part. Efforts to characterise
the materials will begin in mid-2011, and if
successful development work on the part
level will begin in 2012. ■
In many cases the gears that
arrived at Aero Gear for
overhaul displayed surface
wear and damage ranging from
scuffing and discoloration to
pits and dings from corrosion
or mishandling.”
A gear tooth has a shape, or profile, that can only be generated and measured by specialised gear manufacturing equipment.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:42 Page 103
104
O
perating an international airline at the
bottom of the world brings its own set
of challenges for Air New Zealand. Its
home country is remote: even the closest
large neighbour, Australia, is over 2000 kilo-
metres away. The distance between the two
capital cities — Canberra and Wellington —
is almost the same as from London to
Moscow.
That isolation restricts mobility of people
and skills within the industry. As a result, many
of the people within Air New Zealand have
spent several decades working for the same
company — but any suggestion that they must
be stuck in a rut couldn’t be further from the
truth. Air New Zealand is earning a reputation
as a dynamic and innovative organisation. It
regularly cleans up in international industry
competitions and that level of energy and
engagement is even more evident on the
inside.
Air New Zealand’s powerplant business
manager Mick Burdon says: “The airline thrives
on the unique Kiwi ‘can do’ personality, which
has been deliberately fostered and encouraged
from the top down.”
“To see just how pervasive this fresh
approach is, take a look at our in-flight safety
videos on YouTube. Air New Zealand has turned
what is normally the most boring bit of a flight
The Engine Yearbook 2012
In 2006 Air New Zealand took the decision to outsource core engine maintenance. Here, the
airline explains how that strategy has proceeded since then and what it has done to retain and
develop skills within its powerplant engineering department.
Retaining engine
expertise after outsourcing
into videos so entertaining that when I checked
today more than 16 million people have chosen
to watch ours — just for fun.”
Air New Zealand’s engineering capability
has been through a similar revolution. Being
so remote from the usual support networks
means Air New Zealand has traditionally car-
ried out more than its fair share of airframe
heavy and light maintenance and component
overhaul and repair. However, its relatively
small fleet sizes have meant its engineering
division has also had the opportunity to fill
‘white space’ at both its Auckland (widebody)
and Christchurch (narrowbody) bases with
work for external customers.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:50 Page 104
105
“It has been a successful strategy, winning
contracts from both domestic competitors and
overseas carriers,” says Burdon.
“It has also ensured we can remain confi-
dent that our in-house capability remains inter-
nationally competitive. And despite the recent
global recession we have continued to grow
and invest in our maintenance facilities at both
bases.”
While this overall strategy of maintaining
and growing its engineering capability was
endorsed by a 2006 strategic review, the deci-
sion was taken then to outsource core engine
maintenance. Air New Zealand recognised that
continual advances in engine technology and
the growing prominence of the OEMs in the
aftermarket and maintenance business were
steering it away from in-house maintenance, so
the decision was made to outsource the over-
haul of its widebody jet engines.
While the airline has also retained full in-
house capability for nacelle/thrust reverser
repair and refurbishment and QEC and engine
changes, the outsourced core engine mainte-
nance is managed through a variety of MRO
providers and contract types. These include tra-
ditional ‘time and materials’ arrangements
through to comprehensive ‘power by the hour’
deals with various bespoke contracts in
between.
As the aero engine shop workforce was
scaled back, the capability was re-launched as
Air New Zealand Gas Turbines, now ANZGT, and
focused on building a marine and industrial
business. Applying their aero engine know-how
and expertise in this market soon led to some
eye-catching reliability performance figures,
and quickly established the group as a strong
player in this market.
In 2001 what had previously been Air New
Zealand’s successful JT8/Dart MRO in
Christchurch was established as a joint venture
partnership with Pratt & Whitney to form the
Christchurch Engine Centre. In 2005 the
CHCEC added V2500 engine capability to the
existing JT8 and Dart offerings. The CHCEC
recently won a five-year contract with Air New
Zealand for MRO of Air New Zealand’s existing
V2500 fleet.
“Despite several major earthquakes hitting
Christchurch in the past year, the CHCEC shop
has continued to deliver Air New Zealand’s
engines impeccably,” says Burdon.
The CHCEC also provides the airline with
the Pratt & Whitney ‘EcoPower’ engine core
washing service at our Auckland airport hub.
This closed loop wash system delivers a highly
controlled core and fan wash that is proving
effective at recovering engine TGT margin,
reducing an airline’s fuel costs and carbon
emissions dramatically.
Air New Zealand is also growing its APU
business at its Christchurch base’s component
workshops, adding the A320’s APS3200 capa-
The Engine Yearbook 2012
ANZ decided in 2006 to outsource core engine maintenance.
If we go much below 20
engines in a given fleet we
start to see reductions in
cost-effective operation.
Accordingly, we have to be
quite inventive in securing
competitive engine
maintenance deals and
optimising engine spares,
tooling and capability.
— Mick Burdon, powerplant
business manager, ANZ
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:50 Page 105
106 The Engine Yearbook 2012
bility to its line. The APU business aims to dra-
matically increase its engine throughput in the
coming year.
In addition to its domestic activities Air New
Zealand also has a successful military engine
business in Australia, TAE. After start-up in
2000, TAE has now completed successful
‘through life management’ of the TF30 engines
in the RAAF F-111 fleet. This fast-growing busi-
ness has also secured a long-term contract
with GE supporting the 404 and 410 engines of
the RAAF’s Hornets. Through these and other
activities TAE has gained a strong reputation as
a leading military engine MRO business. More
recently TAE has acquired a civil engine busi-
ness to extend diversity and expand its opera-
tions.
Moving to an outsourced engine mainte-
nance model required significant changes to
the way Air New Zealand managed its engines
both on and off-wing. Building a strong power-
plant engineering team was seen as an
absolute necessity. As for most airlines, engine
maintenance is one of Air New Zealand’s
largest single costs. As passenger earnings
are so marginal, managing these engine costs
effectively is recognised as a major contributor
to the airline’s profitability. As a result Air New
Zealand has been prepared to invest in a
strong engineering capability to ensure value
for money is achieved from our engine mainte-
nance contracts.
“Competition for engine maintenance con-
tracts is very keen, especially in the mid-ground
bespoke contract area, so this is where even a
comparatively small player like Air New Zealand
has looked to strike a good deal,” says Burdon.
“The powerplant engineering team at Air
New Zealand works closely with Procurement’s
contract management team to ensure con-
tracts are negotiated to our best advantage.”
Besides ensuring clear forward planning
and management of all airworthiness and tech-
nical issues the Air New Zealand powerplant
engineering team aggressively and actively
manages the engine fleet to dig out savings
and improvements that will pay back year-on-
year. It’s far too easy, once the planning’s done,
to let things take their course and not adjust or
even re-plan.
“We take a lifecycle approach and the loom-
ing fleet changeover, exiting both 747s and
737s over the next four years, has sharpened
the focus on ensuring maximum utilisation of
engine hours before end-of-lease or sale,” says
Burdon. “Detailed planning for the 747 exits
began two years earlier and resulted in a num-
ber of strategically planned engine changes on
these eight aircraft.”
The most recent additions to the Air New
Zealand fleet have been all new GE90-115B
powered 777-300s.
“With aircraft and spare engine delivery
starting in late 2010 we have a very new fleet
The airline has retained in-house capability for nacelle/thrust reverser repair and refurbishment and engine changes.
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:50 Page 106
107 The Engine Yearbook 2012
of engines to consider. These ultra high-value,
ultra high-tech assets are currently flying on our
Auckland/Los Angeles/London routes and they
are expected to stay on wing for many years
before removal for any shop maintenance,”
says Burdon. “But we haven’t given ourselves a
vacation. Instead we’ve spent many months in
intense negotiations with MTU in Hanover to
hammer out a highly tailored engine mainte-
nance contract.”
MTU were open to innovation in this con-
tract particularly around availability of lease
engines if operational issues caused low or
zero spares or even AOG situations. The result
is an innovative deal, with some similarities to
‘power by the hour’, in which MTU will carry out
performance restoration of on-condition
engines based on a flight-hour charge. If and
when Air New Zealand engines require repair
shop visits between performance restorations,
MTU will deliver this on a time-and-material
basis. However, any betterment put into the
engine during such repair visits will reduce the
hourly cost of the next performance restora-
tion.
Air New Zealand needs a relatively diverse
fleet to cover its domestic, regional and inter-
national routes with relatively small numbers of
each aircraft type.
That diversity produces an inherent risk of
operating below the optimum fleet sizes for
each engine type.
“If we go much below 20 engines in a given
fleet we start to see reductions in cost-effec-
tive operation,” says Burdon.
“Accordingly, we have to be quite inventive in
securing competitive engine maintenance
deals and optimising engine spares, tooling
and capability. One solution is to look for part-
nerships, which is exactly the route we are tak-
ing with our latest MRO contracts for the
GE90-115B.”
Air New Zealand’s future Boeing 787-9 fleet,
on the other hand, will be powered by Rolls-
Royce Trent 1000 engines.
“We plan to operate this fleet within a Total
Care package. This ‘power by the hour’ concept
offloads operational and commercial risk from
us as the operator onto the OEM. But there’s
no free lunch, which makes this option appear
relatively expensive compared with the time
and materials or bespoke MRO contracts,”
says Burdon.
It is a different solution, but it is this ana-
lytical approach — building bespoke solutions
for each situation and then managing them
dynamically — that defines Air New Zealand’s
current approach to engine management. ■
In 2005 the Christchurch Engine Centre added V2500 engine capability to the existing JT8 and Dart offerings.
Competition for engine
maintenance contracts is very
keen, especially in the
mid-ground bespoke contract
area, so this is where even a
comparitively small player like
Air New Zealand has looked to
strike a good deal.
— Mick Burdon
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:50 Page 107
108
N
on-destructive testing (NDT) can be
defined as the assessment of material
integrity without compromising future
use, for example by taking samples for analy-
sis. It is a collection of processes used
across a number of different industries, such
as power generation and construction as well
as transportation. The simplest form is a
visual inspection, aided by remote visual
inspection (RVI) equipment such as
borescopes for areas that would be inacces-
sible without disassembly. However, this
method is only useful for superficial problems
and is heavily dependent upon the skill and
dedication of the technician.
In aviation, NDT is used not only during
maintenance or post-incident or accident
investigations, but also during component
manufacture, to preclude flaws, and in the
maintenance and repair of both airframes and
engines to detect not only cracks but disbond-
ing, corrosion, scratches and other problems
or damage.
There are numerous NDT methods including
mechanical and optical inspection, penetrating
radiation, and chemical and analytical testing.
This article concerns fluorescent penetrant
inspection (FPI), a type of inspection in which
fluorescent dye is used to detect defects on
the surfaces of non-porous materials.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Cleaning prior to fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is a critical process for high-reliability
components in the repair and overhaul of aircraft engines. Cleaning via vapour degreasing with
trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common method which is both simple and effective. However, there is
a safer alternative, as US chemical manufacturer Petroferm reports.
Glowing solvent
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:53 Page 108
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CONFERENCES EXHIBITIONS
AIRLINE E&M CONFERENCES
UBM Aviation’s regional conference series deliver critical intelligence, analysis, opinion and the very latest developments in aircraft and
engine maintenance and engineering. The two-day conferences provide the international MRO community with a unique opportunity
to meet and interact with a wide range of stakeholders within each region.
Airline E&M: India March Mumbai, India
Airline E&M: Middle East May 15-16 Abu Dhabi, UAE
Airline E&M: China May Beijing, China
Airline E&M: Asia Pacific September 12-13 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Airline E&M: Latin America & Caribbean September Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Airline E&M: Central & Eastern Europe November 14-15 Istanbul, Turkey
Airline E&M: Managing Aircraft Maintenance Costs December TBC
AERO ENGINE CONFERENCES
These unrivalled conferences provide the sector with vital updates on the recovery of the commercial aviation sector with a specific focus
on aero-engine issues. The two-day conferences and attached workshops feature leading experts who offer essential information on the
latest developments in technological, maintenance, materials, financial and leasing issues across the aero-engine market.
Aero Engine USA February 8-9 Miami, USA
Aero Engine Europe October 17-18 TBC
LEASING, TRADING & FINANCE CONFERENCES
These conferences directly address the critical questions and issues surrounding this ever changing part of the aviation landscape.
Key industry players assess the factors affecting financing, values, the development of new equipment and the aviation industry as a whole.
Engine Leasing, Trading & Finance Europe May 23-24 London, UK
Aircraft & Engine Financing & Leasing USA October 3-4 New York, USA
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FPA_check EYB2012_Engine Yearbook 2012 02/11/2011 16:17 Page 3
110
Components requiring this type of inspection
include turbine blades, casings, disks and spin-
ners. During inspection of these components,
surfaces must be free of any contamination
that could potentially mask defects. Ultimately,
cleaning processes safeguard an aircraft from
defective parts, which inflate maintenance
costs and threaten safety.
Fluorescent penetration
In penetrant inspection, an NDT method
based on the capillary action of liquids, a solu-
tion of visible or fluorescent dye is applied to
the test object, before the excess solution is
removed to highlight any breaks in the surface.
A developer is used to draw the penetrant out
of the defects. Visible dyes rely on colour con-
trast between the penetrant and the developer,
while fluorescent dyes are activated by ultravio-
let light.
The Zyglo fluorescent penetrant process,
supplied by Magnaflux, a division of ITW, pro-
vides a series of process chemicals (including
penetrant and developer powders) which are
used on metal parts to detect cracks or other
imperfections that could cause product failure.
This FPI process is sometimes referred to as
non-destructive testing (NDT) as it allows the
inspection of parts using non-invasive meth-
ods.
The purpose of cleaning prior to FPI is to
remove all metalworking fluids — coolants,
sludge and oils — and debris embedded in the
pores and cracks of a component that would
prevent the penetrant from entering the defect.
A number of cleaning processes have been
used to prepare components for inspection
including: manual cleaning using petroleum-
based solvents such as acetone, methyl ethyl
ketone (MEK), toluene and mineral spirits;
vapour degreasing with hydrochlorofluorocar-
bons (HCFCs), chlorinated solvents such as
trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene
(PERC) and methylene chloride (MC); and aque-
ous cleaning processes.
Vapour degreasing with TCE has been a sim-
ple and effective cleaning method used for
decades. However, TCE is categorized as a haz-
ardous air pollutant by the US Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and is also a sus-
pected carcinogen.
Therefore a US manufacturer of precision
castings wished to change to a safer alterna-
tive. Working with Petroferm, an alternative to
TCE was investigated. The purpose of this
investigation was to identify a suitable alterna-
tive to TCE prior to the Zyglo process.
Firstly, it was important to find a solvent
that could perform as good, or better than TCE.
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Table 1: Comparison of TCE and LENIUM ES Properties
TCE LENIUM ES
Base Chemistry Chlorinated Solvent Brominated Solvent
Boiling Point 189°F (87°C) 154°F (68°C)
Flash Point Non-Flammable Non-Flammable
Vapour Pressure 61mm Hg @ 20ºC 111mm Hg @ 20ºC
Exposure Limits ACGIH 10ppm
Mnf 25ppm
ACGIH 10ppm
SNAP Approved Yes Yes
NESHAP 1 Regulated Not regulated
HAP Yes No
RCRA2 Hazardous
waste
Yes No
1 National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
2 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Table 2: Cleansing Conditions for Testing
Cleaning
Product
Process
Description
Testing Temperature Operating
Parameters
TCE
Vapour
Degreasing
Current
Process
189ºF (87ºC)
Metal components
immersed in boil
sump for for 5
minutes, 5 minute
immersion in in
rinse sump, 1
minute vapour
zone.
LENIUM ES
Vapour
Degreasing
New
Process
154ºF (68ºC)
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:53 Page 110
111
Secondly an alternative would have to be com-
patible with existing vapour degreasing equip-
ment. The third criterion was better
environmental, health, and safety properties
than TCE.
The solvent selected for testing was Lenium
ES, a non-flammable vapour degreasing solvent
with a boiling point of 154ºF (68ºC). This prod-
uct is considered a ‘drop-in’ replacement for
TCE since it can be used in the same equip-
ment requiring only minimal setting changes.
Test component preparation
The cleaning procedure for metal compo-
nents at the castings manufacturer was a typi-
cal two sump, three-stage vapour degreasing
process using TCE. The cleaned components
were inspected immediately after degreasing
using the Zyglo process. Upon passing inspec-
tion, the components were further processed
into the final product.
For this study, a series of four cleaning tests
were completed over a six-month period at an
off-site location. For each test run, the ability to
clean a sample size of at least 200 compo-
nents was evaluated. Each test component
was produced in-house to best emulate the
customer’s conditions and requirements,
including saturation in cutting oils and metal
fines as a result of the normal manufacturing
process. Each test component was then
stacked and racked in baskets used in the cur-
rent degreasing process. The test components,
once cleaned, were then inspected by the cus-
tomer using the Zyglo process. All of the test
components were subjected to the same
pass/fail rating as TCE-cleaned parts.
Cleaning product and process
Lenium ES, a non-flammable, binary
azeotrope solvent cleaner that is comprised of
Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)
approved materials, was utilised in this study.
This product has proven to be highly effective in
removing oils, greases and particulates. It has
broad compatibility with metallic alloys and
many common plastics.
In all cases, the test components cleaned in
Lenium ES were subjected to the same three-
step vapour degreasing procedure as TCE. This
involves washing by immersion in the boil
sump; rinsing through immersion in the rinse
sump; and drying by suspension in the vapour
zone. The description of the cleaning parame-
ters for each test can be found in Table 2.
Vapour degreasing testing was conducted at
an equipment vendor site under the supervi-
sion of a Petroferm representative and the cus-
tomer.
Once cleaned, all test components were
subjected to the Zyglo fluorescent penetrant
process in accordance to AMS 2644 using the
following type, method, sensitivity level, and
form: Type I — Fluorescent Dye (MAGNAFLUX
ZL -27A), Method D Post Emusifiable
Hydrophilic (MAGNAFLUX ZR-10B), Sensitivity
Level 3 — High, Form a- Dry powder (MAG-
NAFLUX ZP-4B). The flow chart above outlines
the steps taken.
Results
Since the customer’s internal rejection cri-
teria is proprietary, no actual test data is avail-
able for this article. The customer did, however,
verify that the test results from the Lenium ES
cleaning trials demonstrated that Lenium ES
was able to indicate component flaws, as deter-
mined by the Zyglo fluorescent penetrant
process and ASTM standards, as good as and
in some cases better than TCE.
The primary goal of the evaluation was to
determine if an alternative vapour degreasing
solvent with preferred environmental, health
and safety properties could replace TCE for
cleaning prior to the Zyglo fluorescent pene-
trant process. The precision casting manufac-
turer found the detection results conclusively
demonstrated that Lenium ES could clean
metal castings as well as, and in some cases
better than, TCE prior to the Zyglo fluorescent
inspection process.
In addition, Lenium ES is considered a drop-
in replacement for TCE as it is used in the
same equipment requiring only a temperature
setting change. Finally, the use of Lenium ES
will significantly improve environmental, health
and safety conditions within the plant. ■
The Engine Yearbook 2012
Method D Hydrophilic
CLEAN IN
LENIUM ES
DWELL
DWELL
INSPECTION
DRY
PRE-RINSE
APPLY
PENETRANT
(MAGNAFLUX
ZL-27A)
APPLY
PENETRANT
(MAGNAFLUX
ZL-27A)
DRY
DEVELOPER
(MAGNAFLUX
ZP-4B)
APPLY
REMOVER
(MAGNAFLUX
ZR-108B)
POST-RINSE
(CLEAN
WATER)
NO
POST
CLEAN
In penetrant inspection a
solution of visible or
fluorescent dye is applied to
the test object, before the
excess solution is removed to
highlight any breaks in the
surface. Visible dyes rely on
colour contrast between the
penetrant and the developer,
while fluorescent dyes are
activated by ultraviolet light.”
EYB2012 Editorial 144p_144p version 02/11/2011 12:53 Page 111
112 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
GE Aviation, Services GE Aviation, Services - Strother Cristina Seda-Hoelle CFM56-2, -3, -5, -7 HSI, MC, MO, OH Five test cells
4th and A Streets - Strother Field GM CF34-All HSI, MC, MO, OH
Arkansas City T (1) 620 442 3600 CT7-All HSI, MC, MO, OH
Kansas 67005 F (1) 620 442 9003
USA E-mail: cristina.seda-hoelle@ge.com
www.geaviation.com
GE Aviation, Services GE Aviation, Services - Celma Julio Talon CFM56-3, -5, -7 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two test cells
Rua Alice Herve 356 GM CF6-80C2, -50 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro T (55) 24 2233 4401
Brazil 25669-900 F (55) 24 2233 4263
E-mail: julio.talon@ge.com
www.geaviation.com
GE Aviation, Services On-Wing Support Cincinnati Kathryn MacDonald CFM56-All HSI, MC
3000 Earhart Ct. Ste 100, MD W21 Business leader CF34-All HSI, MC
Hebron T (1) 859 334 4015 CF6-All HSI, MC
Kentucky 41048 F (1) 859 334 4005 GE90-All HSI, MC
USA E-mail: kathryn.macdonald@ge.com GEnx-All HSI, MC
http://www.geaviation.com/services/ GP7000-All HSI, MC
maintenance/ows/
GE Aviation, Services On-Wing Support Dallas Joel Corbitt CFM56-All HSI, MC
3010 Red Hawk Drive. Suite 100-A Business leader CF34-All HSI, MC
Grand Prairie T (1) 214 960 3323 CF6-All HSI, MC
Texas 75052 http://www.geaviation.com/services/ GE90-All HSI, MC
USA maintenance/ows/ GEnx-All HSI, MC
GP7000-All HSI, MC
Honeywell Aerospace 1300 West Warner Road Bill Wright ALF502 HSI, MC, MO, OH 28 test cells
1207-1 Director, Mechanical Technical Sales ALF507 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Tempe, AZ 85284 Air Transport and Regional Honeywell APUs
USA T (1) 480 592 4182 Honeywell Wheel and Brakes
E-mail: bill.wright@Honeywell.com Honeywell Mechanical Components
Pratt & Whitney 400 Main St Kevin Kearns F117/PW2000 all HSI, MC, MO, OH Eight test cells
Global Engine Services East Hartford General sales manager PW4000 all HSI, MC, MO, OH
Connecticut Engine Solutions CT 06108 T (1) 860 565 2566
USA F (1) 860 755 9959
E-mail: kevin.r.kearns@pw.utc.com
www.pw.utc.com
Pratt & Whitney 8801 Macon Road Kevin Kearns V2500-A5 HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell
Engine Services PO Box 84009 General sales manager F117, PW 2000
(Columbus Engine Columbus T (1) 860-565-2566
Center) GA 31908 E-mail: kevin.r.kearns@pw.utc.com
USA www.pw.utc.com
Pratt & Whitney St Hubert Service Center Brian Rinkevicius PT6A, B, C, T HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell
Canada 7007 Chemin de la Savane Manager, Cust. Service Marketing PW100 HSI, MC, MO, OH
St-Hubert T 450 647 7543 PW150A HSI, MC, MO, OH
Quebec E-mail: Brian.Rinkevicius@pwc.ca PW200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
J3Y 3X7 www.pwc.ca ST6, ST6L series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Canada ST18 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Snecma America Engine Acceso IV no.6 Int. A Wilfried Theissen CFM56-5A, CFM56-5B, HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell
Services Fracc. Industrial Benito Juarez GM CFM56-7B
76120 CP Queretaro T (52) 442 296 5600
Mexico F (52) 442 296 5624
E-mail:
wilfried.theissen@sames.com.mx
www.snecma.com
Rolls-Royce Brazil Rua Dr. Cincinato Braga, 47 Alessandro David Cinto AE3007 All HSI, MC, MO, OH Three test cells
Bairro Planalto Customer business director M250-All HSI, MC, MO, OH
São Bernardo do Campo - São PauloT (55) 11 4390 4804 TAY650-15 HSI, MC, MO, OH
CEP09890-900 F (55) 11 4390 4898 T56 Series II,III HSI, MC, MO, OH
Brazil Trent 700 HSI, MC
Rolls-Royce Canada 9500 Côte de Liesse Road Diana Hargrave AE3007 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Lachine, PQ, VP programmes BR710 HSI, MC, MO, OH
QuÈbec H8T 1A2 T (1) 514 828 1647 Spey HSI, MC, MO, OH
Canada F (1) 514 828 1674 Tay HSI, MC, MO, OH
Email:Yves-Alexandre.Comeau
@rolls-royce.com
Email: diana.hargrave@rolls-royce.com V2500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.rolls-royce.com
Rolls Royce On Wing Care 2135 Hoffman Road John Bolen AE2100 HSI, MC,
Services (in field, on/off-wing Indianapolis, IN 46241 Acting Director and GM AE3007 all HSI, MC,
maintenance) USA Tel: 317-240-1221 BR 700 Series, 710,715,725 HSI, MC,
Tel: 317-213-0164 RB211 all HSI, MC,
Jon.Bolen@rolls-royce.com Tay 611 HSI, MC,
Trent 500,700,800,900,1000 HSI, MC,
THE AMERICAS - OEMS
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 112
113 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
American Airlines 3900 N. Mingo Road David Smith JT8D-217/219 HSI, MC, MO, OH Four engine test cells
(AA Maintenance Tulsa, OK Manager, powerplant marketing CF6-80A/-80C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two APU test cells
Services) USA T (1) 918 292 2567 CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH
M (1) 918 289 7368 Honeywell APUs OH
F (1) 918 292 6734
E-mail: david.smith@aa.com
www.aa-mro.com
BizJet International 3515 North Sheridan Pete DuBois TFE731 H.S.I. Two test cells
(subsidiary of Tulsa VP sales and marketing JT15D HSI, MC, MO, OH
Lufthansa Technik) OK 74115-2220 T (1) 918 831 7628 CF34 H.S.I.
USA F (1) 918 832 8627 CJ610 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: pdubois@bizjet.com CF700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.bizjet.com Spey Repair, Mid-life, OH
Tay Repair, Mid-life, OH
Delta TechOps Dept 460 Jack Turnbill CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH Four engine test cells
1775 Aviation Blvd VP, technical sales and marketing CFM56-5 HSI, MC, MO, OH APU test cell
Atlanta Hartsfield T (1) 404 773 5192 CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH
International Airport, Atlanta F (1) 404 714 5461 CF34-3A/B HSI, MC, MO, OH
GA 30320 E-mail: service@deltatechops.com CF34-8C HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA www.deltatechops.com/ CF6-80C2B1/B1F HSI, MC, MO, OH
CF6-80C2B2/B2F HSI, MC, MO, OH
CF6-80C2B4/B4F HSI, MC, MO, OH
CF6-80C2B6/B6F HSI, MC, MO, OH
CF6-80C2B7F HSI, MC, MO, OH
CF6-80C2B8F HSI, MC, MO, OH
CF6-80C2D1F HSI, MC, MO, OH
JT8D-219 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW2000 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW4000-94 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP 131-9B HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP 131-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Lufthansa Technik AERO Alzey 3515 North Sheridan Road Andreas Kehl CF34-3 series HSI, MC, MO
Service Center Tulsa Tulsa Oklahoma VP marketing and sales CF34-8 series HSI, MC, MO
OK 74115 T (49) 6731 497 118 CF34-10E HSI, MC, MO
USA F (49) 6731 497 333
E-mail: a.kehl@lhaero.com
www.lhaero.com
TAP Maintenance and Marketing and Sales Ricardo Vituzzo PW118/A/B HSI, MC, MO, OH Two test cells
Engineering Brazil Estrada das Can·rias, 1862 Sales GM PW120/A HSI, MC, MO, OH
21941-480 Rio de Janeiro / RJ Tel: (+55 21) 3383 2782 PW121 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Brazil Fax: (+55 21) 3383 2047 PW125B HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: ricardo.vituzzo@tapme.com.br PW127 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.tapme.com.br T56 HSI, MC, MO, OH
United Services United Services Maint. Center Barbara Petino PW2000 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two test cells (all
San Francisco Intíl Airport Sales and Marketing PW4000 (all) HSI, MC, MO, OH listed engines)
Building 74 - SFOUS T (1) 650.634-7650
San Francisco E-mail: Barbara.Petino@united.com
CA 94128 www.unitedsvcs.com
USA
Aveos Fleet Performance 7171 Cote Vertu Ouest Jim Andrews CF34-3 series HSI, MC, MO, OH Two test cells
Zip 8040 VP and GM, engine solutions CF34-8 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Dorval (Québec) T (1) 514 828-3517 CF34-10 light
H4S 1Z3 F (1) 514 945-3830 CFM56-2 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Canada jim.r.andrews@aveos.com CFM56-3 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
carl.berger@aveos.com CFM56-5 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
(514 828 3560) JT9D-7 (A-J), JT9D-7R4 (D/E) HSI, MC, MO, OH
Aeromaritime America (ITP) 4927 E. Falcon Drive Anita L. Goodwin RR M250-All series HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell
Mesa GM PW200 Servicing N/A
AZ 85215-2545 T (1) 480 830 7780
USA F (1) 480 830 8988
E-mail: agoodwin@aeromarusa.com
www.aeromarusa.com
APECS Engine Center 13642 SW 142nd Avenue Fred Laemmerhirt JT8D (all) HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells available
Miami Director JT8D-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH On-wing repairs
FL 33186 T 305 255 2677 JT8D-9A HSI, MC, MO, OH C7 blade blending
USA F 305 255 0277 JT8D-15, -15A HSI, MC, MO, OH Hushkit installations
E-mail: Fred@a-pecs.com JT8D-17, -17A, -17AR HSI, MC, MO, OH QEC Installs/swaps
www.a-pecs.com JT8D-200 series Gearbox overhaul
Atech Turbine 1 St Mark Street Jay Kapur JT15D OH Component
Components Auburn GM PT6 OH OH & repair only
MA 01501 T (1) 508 721 7679 PW100 OH
USA F (1) 508 721 7968 PW200 OH
E-mail: jayk@atechturbine.com PW500 OH
www.atechturbine.com
THE AMERICAS - AIRLINES
THE AMERICAS - INDEPENDENTS
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 113
114 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
Complete Turbine Service Turbine Engine Services Konrad J. Walter CF6 series BSI, EMG, FS, HIS, MC, MPA, OH, QEC, TCI
3300 SW 13th Avenue President/member CF34 Series BSI, EMG, FS, HIS, MPA, MC, QEC, TCI
Ft. Lauderdale Ed Blyskal CFM56 series BSI, EMG, FS, HIS, MC, MPA, QEC, TCI,
Florida 33315 VP marketing and sales JT3D series BSI, FS, HSI, MC, TCI
USA Mike Bartosh JT8D series EMG, MPA, QEC
VP-Mtc operations JT9D series BSI, EMG, FS, HSI, MC, MPA, QEC, TCI
T (1) 954 764 2616 PW2000 series BSI, EMG, FS, HSI, MC, MPA, QEC, OH, TCI
F (1) 954 764 2516 PW4000 series BSI, EMG, FS, MPA, QEC
www.completeturbine.com RB211 Series BSI, EMG, FS, MC, MPA, QEC
RR Tay Series BSI, EMG, FS, MC, MPA, QEC
RR BR710 BSI, EMG, MPA, QEC
V2500 Series BSI, EMG, MPA
Honeywell Series APU BSI, EMG, FS, MPA, QEC
Dallas Airmotive 900 Nolen Drive Christopher Pratt PW100 HSI, MC, MO, OH 7 test cells in Dallas, TX
(BBA Aviation) Suite 100 Dir. marketing & strategic planning PT6A & T HSI, MC, MO, OH 4 test cells in Neosho, MO
Grapevine T (1) 214 956 2601 JT15D HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell in Charlotte, NC
TX 76051 F (1) 214 956 2825 TFE731 HSI, MC, MO, OH Five test cells in
USA E-mail: RR model 250/T63/T703 HSI, MC, MO, OH Portsmouth, UK
turbines@BBAAviationERO.com Spey HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.BBAAviationERO.com Tay HSI, MC, MO, OH
ALF502 HSI, MC, MO, OH
CFE738 HSI, MC
CF34 HSI, MC
CJ610/J85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
HTF7000 MC
RE100 MC
PW300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP model 36 APU HSI, MC, MO, OH
FJ Turbine Power 8195 West 20th Ave. Jose Gomez de Cordova CFM56-3 (all series) HSI, MC, MO, OH One test cell
Hialeah CEO JT8D-7, -7B, -9A,-15, -15A HSI, MC, MO, OH (JT8D engines)
Florida 33014 E-mail: fjturbinepower@aol.com JT8D-17, -17A, -17AR HSI, MC, MO, OH 24/7 AOG field
USA Manny Castanedo JT8D-209, -217, -217A, -217C HSI, MC, MO, OH for customers
VP and General Manager JT8D-219 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: mannyfjtp@aol.com JT8D gearboxes
Charlie Rey CFM56-5B & 5C HSI, MC, MO, OH
Sr. VP Marketing & Logistics
E-mail: charlie@fjturbinepower.net
Vernon Craig
VP Marketing
E-mail: vcraig@fjturbinepower.net
T (1) 305-820-8494
F (1) 305-820-8495
C (1) 954-593-9988
www.fjturbinepower.net
ITR Acceso IV No 6 Emilio Otero JT8D-STD HS1, ESV1/2, EHM, MO, MC, OH Two test cells
Zona Industrial Benito Ju·rez CEO JT8D-200 HS1, ESV1/2, EHM, MO, MC, OH
CP 76120 E-mail: itr@itrmexico.com.mx TPE-331 HSI, CAM, MO, MC
Querétaro, Qro. Julio RamÌrez
Mexico Commercial director
E-mail: dircom@itrmexico.com.mx
T (52 + 442) 296 3915 / 00
F (52 + 442) 296 3906 / 08
www.itrmexico.com.mx
Kelly Aviation Center 3523 General Hudnell Drive Frank Cowan CF6-50 HSI, MC, MO, OH Four large engine
San Antonio Director, business development turbofan cells with
Texas 78226 T (1) 210 928 5052 one capable of
USA C (1) 210 827 5275 afterburner operation,
F (1) 210 928 5470 Four turboprop/
E-mail: frank.cowan@lmco.com turboshaft cells
www.kellyaviationcenter.com
Marsh Aviation 5060 East Falcon Drive Floyd Stilwel TPE331 HSI, OH TPE331
Mesa President T76 HSI, OH T76
AZ 85215-2590 T (1) 480 832 3770
USA F (1) 480 985 2840
E-mail: stilwell@marshaviation.com
www.marshaviation.com
MTU Maintenance 6020 Russ Baker Way Ralf Schmidt CF6-50 HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell
Canada Richmond BC CEO and president CFM56-3 MC
V7B 1B4 T (1) 604 233 5755
Canada F (1) 604 233 5719
E-mail: info@mtucanada.com
www.mtu-canada.com
NewJet Engine Services 13945 SW 139 Court Muazzi L. Hatem JT8D-7B, -9A, -11, -15, -15A HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells available
Miami VP sales JT8D-17, -17A, -17AR HSI, MC, MO, OH
FL 33186 T (1) 305 256 0678 JT8D-209 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA F (1) 305 256 0878 JT8D-217, -217A, -217C HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail:muazzih@newjet.net JT8D-219
www.newjet.net
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 114
115 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
Patriot Aviation 9786 Premier Parkway Virgil Pizer JT3D series HSI, MO, OH, Global capability
Services Miramar T (1) 954 462 6040 JT8D series HSI, MO, OH
FL 33025 F (1) 954 462 0702 JT8D-200 series HSI, MO, OH
USA E-mail: virgil@patriotaviation.com JT9D series HSI, MO, OH
www.patriotaviation.com CF6 series HSI, MO, OH
CFM56 series HSI, MO, OH
CF34 series HSI, MO, QEC
V2500 series HSI, MO, QEC
PW2000 series HSI, MO, QEC
PW4000 series HSI, MO, QEC
TAY series HSI, MO, QEC
RB211 series HSI, MO, QEC
BR700 series HSI, MO, QEC
T56 series HSI, MO, QEC, BSI
AE2100 series HSI, MO, QEC, BSI
APU/GTC all series BSI
Prime Turbines 630 Barnstable Road Jack Lee PT6 all HSI, OH Test cell
Barnstaple Municipal Airport Customer service manager
Hyannis T (1) 508 771 4744
MA 02601 F (1) 508 790 0038
USA E-mail: pt6@prime-turbines.com
www.prime-turbines.com
StandardAero Corporate Offices Mike Turner AE2100 MC, MO, OH Test cells for all dis
1524 West 14th Street #110 Dir. mktg and corp communications AE3007 HSI, MC, MO, OH played engine types
Tempe T (1) 480 377-3195 CF34-3/-8 HSI, MC, MO, OH available
Arizona 85281-6974 F (1) 480 377-3171 CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA E-mail: GTCP 36, GTCP85, RE220, Full MRO cap.
mike.turner@standardaero.com APS2300 Full MRO cap.
www.standardaero.com Model 250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PT6A HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW100 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW600 HSI, MC, MO, OH
T56/501D HSI, MC, MO, OH
TFE731 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TPE331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Texas Aero Engine 2100 Eagle Parkway Jim Holmes Trent 800 HSI, MC, MO, OH Trent 800
Services Fort Worth Senior manager, customer business RB211-535 HSI, MC, MO, OH RB211-535
(JV, American Airlines TX 76177 T (1) 817 224 1042
and Rolls-Royce) USA F (1) 817 224 0043
E-mail: j.holmes@taesl.com
www.taesl.com
TIMCO Engine Center 3921 Arrow Street Dennis Little JT8D series HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell
Oscoda GM JT8D-200 series HSI, MC, MO, OH for JT8D series
MI 48750 T (1) 989 739 2194 ext 8532 JT8D series On wing JT8D-200 series
USA F (1) 989 739 6732 JT8D-200 series On wing
E-mail (1): Dennis.Little@TIMCO.Aero CFM56-3/-5/-7 On wing
E-mail (2): David.Koffs@TIMCO.Aero
www.timco.aero
Timken Overhaul Services 3110 N Oakland St Larry Batchelor PT6A Series HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell for all listed
Mesa, Sr Product Sales Manager PT6T Series HSI, MC, MO, OH engines
Az 85215-1144 T (1) 480 606 3011 T53 Fuel control overhaul
USA F (1) 480 635 0058
E-mail: larry.batchelor@timken.com
www.timken.com/mro
Turbine Engine 8050 NW 90th St Guillermo Galvan JT3D HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells available
Miami President JT8D-1-17R HSI, MC, MO, OH
FL 33166 T (1) 305 477 7771 JT8D-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA F (1) 305 477 7779
E-mail: Galvan@turbineengine.com
United Turbine 8950 NW 79 Ave. Ali Mozzayanpour PT6A & T HSI, MC, MO, OH Dynamometer
Miami President Test cell
FL 33166 T (1) 305 885 3900
USA F (1) 305 885 0472
E-mail: pt6@unitedturbine.com
www.unitedturbine.com
Vector Aerospace PO Box 150 Tim Cox PW100 HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells available
Engine Services - Atlantic Hangar 8 VP engine & component sales PT6A HSI, MC, MO, OH
Slemon Park T (1) 817 416 7926 JT15D HSI, MC, MO, OH
Summerside F (1) 817 421 2706 307A HSI, MC, MO, OH
PE E-mail: sales.esa@vectoraerospace.com 308A/C HSI, MC, MO, OH
Canada C1N 4P6 www.vectoraerospace.com
Wood Group 4820 NW 60th Ave Rana Das T56/501D HSI, MC, MO, OH T56/501D
Turbopower Miami Lakes VP, GM PT6A HSI, MC, MO, OH PT6A prop cell
FL 33014 T (1) 305 423 2300 PT6T HSI, MC, MO, OH PT6T dyno cell
USA F (1) 305 820 0404 ST6 APU HSI, MC, MO, OH T56 prop cell
E-mail: rana.das@woodgroup.com 90,000ft2 facility
www.woodgroupturbopower.com
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 115
116 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
GE Aviation, Services GE Aviation, Services - Wales Adrian Button CFM56-3, -5, -7 HSI, MC, MO, OH Four test cells
Caerphilly Road, Nantgarw GM GE90-All HSI, MC, MO, OH
Cardiff, South Glamorgan T (44) 1443 847435 GP7000-All HSI, MC, MO, OH
South Wales, UK, CF15 7YJ F (44) 1443 847361 RB211-524, 535
E-mail: adrian.button@ae.ge.com
www.geaviation.com
GE Aviation, Services GE Aviation, Services - Caledonian Alan Kelly CF6-All HSI, MC, MO, OH One test cell
Prestwick International Airport GM GEnx-All HSI, MC, MO, OH
Prestwick, Ayrshire T (44) 1292 673254
Scotland, UK, KA9 2RX F (44) 1292 673001
E-mail: alan.kelly@ge.com
www.geaviation.com
GE Aviation, Services On-Wing Support London David Dring CFM56-All HSI, MC
Unit 4, Radius Park, Faggs Road Business leader CF34-All HSI, MC
London Heathrow Airport T (44) (0) 208 917 3258 CF6-All HSI, MC
Feltham, Middlesex, TW14 0NG F (44) (0) 208 893 7106 GE90-All HSI, MC
UK E-mail: dave.dring@ge.com GEnx-All HSI, MC
http://www.geaviation.com/services/ GP7000-All HSI, MC
maintenance/ows/ RB211 HSI, MC
Honeywell Aerospace 65 President Way John Page ALF 502 IC03, MC, MO, OH Honeywell test cells
(UK) Luton Airport Customer and prod. support leader LF 507 IC03, MC, MO, OH ALF 502
Luton LU2 9NB T (44) 1582 393 811 LF 507
UK F (44) 1582 420 253
E-mail: john.page6@honeywell.com
www.honeywell.com
Pratt & Whitney Canada Dr.-Ernst-Zimmermann-Str. 4 Clemens Linden PT6A HSI, MC, MO, OH
Customer Service Centre 14974 Ludwigsfelde GM PW200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Europe Germany T (49) 3378 824 801 PW300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
F (49) 3378 824 840 PW500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: Clemens.Linden-CSC@pwc.ca
Steve Dicks
Commercial manager
T (44) 2380 461 260
F (44) 2380 461 270
E-mail: steve.dicks@pwc.ca
www.pwc.ca
Pratt & Whitney N-4055 Stavanger Airport Helge Nesveg CFM56-3, -7B, -5B HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells for listed
Engine Services Norway General sales manager engines
(Norway Engine T (47) 51 64 20 16
Center) F (47) 51 64 20 01
E-mail: helge.nesvag@pw.utc.com
www.pw.utc.com
Pratt & Whitney Pratt & Whitney THY Teknik Aykut Tutucu CFM56-3, -5B, -5C, -7B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Engine Services Uçak Motor Bakimi Merkezi General sales manager V2500-A5
(Turkish Engine Center) “Turkish Engine Center” T (90) 216-585-4810
Sabiha Gokcen Uluslararasi Havalimani F (90) 216-585-48-05
34912 Pendik E-mail: aykut.tutucu@pw.utc.com
Istanbul, Turkey www.pw.utc.com
Rolls-Royce Mavor Avenue Geoffrey Grier V2500 HSI, MC, MO, OH Up to 120,000lb
Gas Turbine Services East Kilbride Head of Customer Business Tay HSI, MC, MO, OH
East Kilbride G74 4PY T (44) 1355-277349 AE2100 HSI, MC, MO, OH
UK F (44) 1355-277608 BR710 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: geoffrey.grier@rolls-royce.com
www.rolls-royce.com
Rolls Royce On Wing Care PO Box 31 Marc Drew AE2100 all HSI,MC
Services (in field, on/off-wing Derby, DE24 8BJ Head of field services AE3007 all HSI,MC
maintenance) UK T: +44 1332 243481 BR700 all HSI,MC
T: +44 1332 244797 IAE V2500 HSI,MC
email: marc.drew@rolls-royce.com RB211 all HSI,MC
email: on-wing care@rolls-royce.com Tay all HSI,MC
Trent all HSI,MC
Snecma 10, Allée du Brévent Roupen Karakachian CFM56-2A/2B/2C HSI, MC, MO, OH Villaroche, 5 cells for
CE1420 Courcouronnes VP sales CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH engines dev. up to
91019 Evry Cedex E-mail: roupen.karakachian@snecma.fr CFM56-5A/5B/5C HSI, MC, MO, OH 120,000lb of thrust
France Telephone : + 33 1 60 59 84 61 CFM56-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH Chatellerault/props
GE90 (HPC compressor) MO up to 6000HP (Tyne)
LARZAC HSI, MC, MO, OH and low-power t/jets
M88 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TYNE HSI, MC, MO, OH
CFM56 parts repair
Snecma Services Brussels Batiment 24B - Local 101 Bruno Michel CFM56-2 HSI, MC, MO, OH One test cell
Brussels airport CEO CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH
1930 Zaventem T (32) 2 790 45 00 CFM56-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Belgium F (32) 2 790 47 99 CFM56 parts repair HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail : bruno.michel@snecma.be
EUROPE - OEMS
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 116
117 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
Air France Industries BP7 Rob Pruim CFM56-5A, -5B, -5C HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell up to
(AFI KLM E&M) Le Bourget Aeroport VP Sales International CFM56-3, CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH 100,000lb
93352 Le Bourget Cedex T (31) 20 649 1100 CF6-50 HSI, MC, MO, OH CFM56
France F (31) 20 648 8044 CF6-80A, -80C2, -80E1 HSI, MC, MO, OH CF6
E-mail: rm.pruim@klm.com GE90 HSI, MC, MO, OH GE90
www.afiklmem.com
Alitalia Maintenance Systems Leonardo da Vinci Airport Oreste Murri CF6-50 C2/E2 HSI, MC, MO, OH CF6 test cell
Piazza Almerico da Schio Manager of marketing & sales CF6-80 C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH
00050 Rome-Fiumicino T (39) 06 6543 5236 CFM56-5B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Italy F (39) 06 6543 5111
M†(39) 335 7389 719
E-mail: murri.oreste@alitaliaservizi.it
E-mail: ams@alitaliaservizi.it
www.alitaliamaintenancesystems.it
Finnair Engine Services Finnair Technical Services Mika Hänninen CFM56-5B HSI, MC, MO, OH Turbofan up to
Helsinki-Vantaa Airport VP sales and marketing CF6-80C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH 100,000lb
DE/83 T (358) 9 818 6443 PW2037/2040 MC
01053 FINNAIR F (358) 9 818 6900
Finland mika.hanninen@finnair.com
www.finnairtechnicalservices.com
Iberia Maintenance Madrid-Barajas Airport José Luis Quirós Cuevas CFM56-5A, -5B, -5C HSI, MC, MO, OH Three test cells
La Muñoza. Edif. Motores Commercial & development director CFM56-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH 1 up to 100,000lb
E-28042 Madrid T (34) 91 587 5132 CF34-3A1, -3B1 HSI, MC, MO, OH 2 for JT8D
Spain F (34) 91 587 5884 JT8D-217, -219 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: jlquirosc@iberia.es RB211-535E4, -535C37 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.iberiamaintenance.com
KLM Engineering & Maintenance Dept SPL / TQ Rob Pruim CFM56-5A, -5B, -5C HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell up to
(AFI KLM E&M) PO Box 7700 VP sales international CFM56-3, CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH 100,000lb
Schiphol Airport T (31) 20 649 1100 CF6-50 HSI, MC, MO, OH CFM56
1117 ZL Amsterdam F (31) 20 648 8044 CF6-80A, -80C2, -80E1 HSI, MC, MO, OH CF6
Netherlands E-mail: rm.pruim@klm.com GE90 HSI, MC, MO, OH GE90
www.afiklmem.com
Lufthansa Technik HAM TS Walter Heerdt JT9D, -7A, -7F, -7J, -7Q, -7R HSI, MC, MO, OH Six test cells
Weg beim Jaeger 193 SVP marketing & sales JT9D-59A, JT9D-70A HSI, MC, MO, OH up to 100,000lb
Hamburg T (49) 405070 5553 PW4000-94, PW100, PW150 HSI, MC, MO, OH Airline support teams
D-22335 F (49) 405060 8860 ALF502/LF507 HSI, MC, MO, OH Total engine support
Germany E-mail: marketing.sales@lht.dlh.de CF6-80C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH Spare engine coverage
www.lufthansa-technik.com CF6-80E1 HSI, MC, MO, OH On-spot borescope
CFM56-2, -3, -5, -7 HSI, MC, MO, OH Engine lease
V2500 -A5, -D5 HSI, MC, MO, OH HSPS
CF34, -3, -8, 10 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW100 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW150 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Trent 500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Trent 700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Trent 900 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Spey HSI, MC, MO, OH
Tay 611 HSI, MC, MO, OH
RB211 - 535 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TFE 731 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Lufthansa Technik AERO Alzey Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 10 Andreas Kehl PW100 series HSI, MC, MO, OH Two test stands for
D-55232 Alzey VP marketing and sales PW150 series HSI, MC, MO, OH PW100,-150, 901A,
Germany T (49) 6731 497 118 CF34-3 series HSI, MC, MO, OH CF34-3/-8 series /
F (49) 6731 497 333 CF34-8 series HSI, MC, MO, OH CF34-10E
E-mail:a.kehl@lhaero.com CF34-10E HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.lhaero.com
Lufthansa Technik Naas Road Paul Morgan JT9D-7A/F/J HSI, MC, MO, OH V2500
Airmotive Ireland Rathcoole Commercial manager JT9D-7Q/70A/59A HSI, MC, MO, OH JT9D
Co. Dublin T (353) 1 401 1109 CFM56-2, -3, -7 HSI, MC, MO, OH CFM56
Ireland F (353) 1 401 1344 V2500-A5 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: paul.morgan@ltai.ie
www.ltai.ie
Lufthansa Technik Switzerland P.O. Box Thomas Foth ALF502/LF507 HSI, MC, MO, OH
CH-4002 Basel Director sales & marketing
Switzerland T (41) 61 568 3070
F (41) 61 568 3079
thomas.foth@lht-switzerland.com
www.lht-switzerland.com
N3 Engine Overhaul Gerhard-Hoeltje Str. 1 Wolfgang Kuehnhold Trent 500 HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell for
Services D-99310 Arnstadt GM Trent 700 HSI, MC, MO, OH Trent 500/700/900
Germany T (49) 3628 5811 211 Trent 900 HSI, MC, MO, OH up to 150,000lb
F (49) 3628 5811 8211
E-mail: wolfgang.kuehnhold@n3eos.com
www.n3eos.com
EUROPE - AIRLINES
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 117
118 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
TAP Maintenance & Marketing and Sales Carlos Ruivo CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell
Engineering P.O. Box 50194 VP Marketing and Sales CFM56-5A/5B/5C HSI, MC, MO, OH up to 100,000lb
Lisbon Airport T (+351) 21 841 5975 CFM56-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH
1704-801 Lisbon F (+351) 21 841 5913 JT8D (standard) HSI, MC, MO, OH
Portugal E-mail: marketing.me@tap.pt RB211-524B4 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.tapme.pt RB211-524D4 HSI, MC, MO, OH
CF6-80C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Turkish Technic Turkish Technic Inc. Altug Sokeli CFM56-3 Series HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells for all lis
Ataturk Intíl Airport Gate B Technical marketing & sales mgr CFM56-5A/ -5B/ -5C Series HSI, MC, MO, OH engines
34149 Yesilkoy T (90) 212 463 63 63 ext. 9223 CFM56-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Istanbul F (90) 212 465 25 21 CF6-80A Series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Turkey asokeli@thy.com CF6-80C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH
techmarketing@thy.com LF507-1F HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.turkishtechnic.com V2500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Aeromaritime Mediterranean (ITP) 7, Industrial Estate Mario Mazzola M250-all series HSI, MC, MO, OH One test cell
Hal Far BBG 06 MD
MALTA T (356) 21 65 1778
F (356) 21 65 1782
E-Mail: mario.mazzola@aeromaritime.com
www.aeromaritime.com
Air Atlanta Shannon Airport Martin O’Boyle CF6-80 On-wing repairs
Aero Engineering Co. Clare T (353) 61 717780 JT8D On-wing repairs
Ireland F (353) 61 717709 CFM56 On-wing repairs
E-mail: moboyle@airatlanta.ie RR Tay On-wing repairs
www.airatlanta.ie RB211 On-wing repairs
JT9D On-wing repairs
APM (Aircraft Power Maintenance) Vliegveld 49 Tony de Bruyn P&W JT3D, JT8D HSI, MC, MO, OH 75,000 lb test cell
8560 Wevelgem President - CEO
Belgium 32 56 43 25 74
32 56 40 42 86
tony.debruyn@eurekaaviation.com
Avio Avio - MRO Division Werner Schroeder PW100 (120,121,124B,127, HSI, MC, MO, OH No. 8 up to 100,000lb
Commercial Aeroengines VP Avio MRO Division 127E,127F,127B,120A, HSI, MC, MO, OH thrust
Viale Impero T (39) 081 316 3268/3809 PW123, PW123AF,127G HSI, MC, MO, OH
80038 Pomigliano dÌArco F (39) 081 316 3716 JT8D-200 Engine Family HSI, MC, MO, OH
Napoli E-mail: CFM56-5B, -7B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Italy armando.murolo@aviogroup.com
www.aviogroup.com
CRMA 14 avenue Gay-Lussac Luc Bornand CF6-80C2, CF6-80E1 MO and repair parts
(Construction reparation ZA clef de st-Pierre CEO CFM56-3 / -5 / -7 MO and repair parts
material aeronautique) F 78990 Elancourt T (33) 1 3068 37 01 GE90, GP7200 MO and repair parts
Subsidiary of Air France France F (33) 1 3068 3620
E-mail:luc.bornand@crma.fr
www.crma.fr
EADS SECA 1 boulevard du 19 mars 1962 Jean-Jacques Reboul PW100 series HSI, MC, MO, OH Four test cells
BP 50064 VP sales & marketing PT6A HSI, MC, MO, OH
95503 Gonesse Cedex T (33) 1 30 18 53 13 JT15D HSI, MC, MO, OH
France F (33) 1 30 18 54 90 TFE731 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: CF700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
jean-jacques.reboul@seca.eads.net PW300 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.seca.eads.net
Euravia Engineering Euravia House Steve Clarkson PT6A Series HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells for all
Colne Road Business Development Director PT6T Series HSI, MC, MO, OH listed engines
Kelbrook T (44) 1282 844 480 ST6L HSI, MC, MO, OH
Lancashire F (44) 1282 844 274 GTCP 165 HSI, MC, MO, OH
BB18 6SN E-mail: steve.clarkson@euravia.aero Artouste Mk 120-124 HSI, MC, MO, OH
UK www.euravia.aero Rover Mk 10501 HSI, MC, MO, OH
H+S Aviation Airport Service Road Steve Bull CT7-2 through -9 HSI, MC, MO, OH Five test cells
(BBA Aviation) Portsmouth, Territorial sales director JT15D HSI, MC, MO, OH
Hamphsire PO3 5PJ T: (+44) 23 9230 4256 PT6T HSI, MC, MO, OH
UK F: (+44) 23 9230 4020 RR250/T63/T703 HSI, MC, MO, OH
steve.bull@hsaviation.co.uk T700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.BBAAviationERO.com GTCP 36-100/150 APU HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP 331-200/250 APU HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW901 APU HSI, MC, MO, OH
T40-1 APU HSI, MC, MO, OH
Industria de Turbo Propulsores Ctra. Torrejon-Ajalvir Olivier Gillot ATAR 9K50, F404-400, EJ200 HSI, MC, MO, OH Seven mro Test cells
(ITP) Ajalvir 28864 - Ajalvir SVP Sales & Marketing TFE731-2/3/4/5, CF700 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two turbofan cells Up
Madrid T (34) 91 91 205 4606 PW100 (123AF, 127G) HSI, MC, MO, OH 25.000lb
PostBox: 111 F (34) 91 205 4650 PT6T-3, TPE331-All, T55, T53 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two turboshaft cells
28850 - Torrejon de Ardoz M (34) 627 166 429 LM2500 HSI, MC, MO, OH Up to 5,000shp
Madrid E-mail: olivier.gillot@itp.es TP400, MTR390-E HSI, MC, MO, OH (WIP) One Turboprop cell
Spain www.itp.es BR715 Parts repair only (Prod) Up to
PW200 SERIES HSI, MC, MO, OH 20,000shp
CT7-5/7/9 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two Turboshaft (Prod)
CT7-8 / T700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
EUROPE - INDEPENDENTS
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 118
119 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
Industria de Turbo Propulsores Parque Aeron·utico y LogÌstico Olivier Gillot CT7 TP (-5, -7A, -9C) HSI, MC, MO, OH One Test Cell
(ITP) Albacete Ctra. de las PeÒas SVP Sales & Marketing CT7 TS (-2A, -8A, -8E, -8F5) HSI, MC, MO, OH Up to 5,000 hp
02006 - Albacete T (34) 91 91 205 4606 PW206 A/B/B2/C/E HSI, MC, MO, OH
PostBox: 7036 F (34) 91 205 4650 PW207 C/D/E HSI, MC, MO, OH
Apdo. 7036 M (34) 627 166 429 T700-GE-401/C, -701A/C/D HSI, MC, MO, OH
02080 - Albacete E-mail: olivier.gillot@itp.es
Spain www.itp.es
MTU Maintenance Dr.-Ernst-Zimmermann-Str. 2 T (49) 3378 824 0 CF34-3, CF34-8, CF34-10 HSI, MC, MO, OH Four test cells
Berlin-Brandenburg D-14974 Ludwigsfelde F (49) 3378 824 300 PT6A, PW200, PW300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Germany E-mail: ludwigsfelde@mtu.de PW500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.mtu-berlin.com
MTU Maintenance Muenchner Str. 31 Dr. Martin Funk CF6-50, -80C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two test cells
Hannover D-30855 Langenhagen President & CEO CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH 150,000 lb
Germany T (49) 511 7806 0 PW2000 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
F (49) 511 7806 2111 PW6000 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: hannover@mtu.de V2500-A1, -A5, -D5 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.mtu-hannover.de
OGMA 2615-173 Alverca M·rio Lobato Faria AE2100/D3, AE3007 HSI, MC, MO, OH Six test cells
Portugal VP aviation services T56/501 series HSI, MC, MO, OH 30,000 lb
T (351) 21 958 1000 Turmo HSI, MC, MO, OH
F (351) 21 957 9010 Artouste HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: com_engine@ogma.pt
www.ogma.pt
Vector Aerospace Engine 12 Imperial Way Philip Self ALF502/ LF 502 HSI, MC, MO, OH Turbofan cell up to
Services UK Croydon Director - sales UK PW 307/308 HSI, MC, MO, OH 40,000lb
Surrey CR9 4LE T (44) 20 8688 7777 RR T56/501D series HSI, MC, MO, OH Turboshaft cell up to
UK F (44) 20 8688 6603 RR 250 series HSI, MC, MO, OH 10,000 shp
E-mail: RR Conway & Dart series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Fleetlands Building 110 philip.self@vectoraerospace.com Hamilton 54H60 Propellers
Fareham Road www.vectoraerospace.com
Gosport
Hampshire PO13 OAA
UK
SR Technics Zurich Airport Sean O’Connor CFM56-5B/C, -7 HSI, MC, MO, OH One test cell
CH-8058 EVP sales (acting) PW4000 (94 & 100 fan) HSI, MC, MO, OH 100,000lb
Switzerland T (41) 43 812 13 01
F (41) 43 812 97 98
E-mail: sean.oconnor@srtechnics.com
www.srtechnics.com
Summit Aviation Merlin Way Bruce Erridge JT3D HSI, MC, MO, OH One test cell
Manston Commercial director JT8D-Std All Series HSI, MC, MO, OH 40,000lb
Kent CT12 5FE T (44) 1843 822444 JT8D-200 Series HSI, MC, MO, OH
UK F (44) 1843 820900
E-mail: Bruce@summit-aviation.co.uk
Turbine Motor Works Hangar 1, Upwood Airpark David Billington CF6-50 HSI, MC, MO, OH
(TMW) Ramsey Road Director of sales and marketing CF6-80 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Bury, Cambridge PE26 2RA T (44) 1487 711650 JT9D HSI, MC, MO, OH
UK F (44) 1487 710777 JT3D
E-mail:
david.billington@turbinemotorworks.com
www.turbinemotorworks.com
Abu Dhabi Aircraft PO Box 46450 Kirubel Tegene CF6-50C/E HSI, MC, MO, OH 100,000lb
Technologies Abu Dhabi VP marketing and sales commercial CF6-80C2 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
International Airport T: (+971) 2 5057 234 CFM56-5A series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Abu Dhabi F: (+971) 2 5757 263 PT6 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
UAE E-mail: commercial@adat.ae Trent 500 (planned) HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.adat.ae Trent 700 MC & TEST (planned MO,OH)
V2500A5 (planned) HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP331-200, -250, -350 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Ameco Beijing PO Box 563 Mr Teng Bin/Mr Olaf Albrecht PW4000-94 HSI, MC, MO, OH 100,000lb (one cell)
Capital International Airport Senior directors, marketing & sales RB211-535E4 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Beijing T: (+86) 10 6456 1122 X 4100/4101
China 100621 F: (+86) 10 6456 1823
E-mail: sales@ameco.com.cn
www.ameco.com.cn
Bedek Aviation Engines Division Michel Levy CFM56-2/-3/-5B/-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH Four jet engines
Bedek Aviation Group GM JT3D-3B/-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH One turboprop
Israel Aircraft Industries T: (+972) 3 935 7064 JT8D-7 to -17R HSI, MC, MO, OH Three turboshaft
Ben-Gurion Airport F: (+972) 3 935 8740 JT8D-217/-219- HSI, MC, MO, OH
70100 E-mail: milevy@iai.co.il JT9D-7A/-7F/-7J HSI, MC, MO, OH
Israel www.iai.co.il JT9D-59A/-70A/-7Q/-7R4/
-7R4G2/-7R4D/E HSI, MC, MO, OH
T53-13/-703 HSI, MC, MO, OH
T56/501 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PW4000-94 HSI, MC, MO, OH
PT6A-27 to -42/-50/T HSI, MC, MO, OH
V2500-A5 HSI, MC
ASIA, AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, AUSTRALASIA
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:29 Page 119
120 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
Ethiopian Airlines PO Box 1755 Amare Gebreyes JT8D HSI, MC, MO, OH One 100,000lb test cell
Bole International Airport Director MRO Sales and Marketing CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two turboshaft test cells
Addis Ababa T: (+251) 11 6651191 CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Ethiopia (+251) 11 6651192 JT9D HSI, MC
F: (+251) 11 6651200 PW2000 HSI, MC
E-mail: PT6 HSI, MC, MO, OH
amareg@ethiopianairlines.com PW120, PW121 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.ethiopianairlines.com
GE Aviation, Services GE Aviation, Services - Malaysia Jacques Juneau CFM56-3, -5 HSI, MC, MO, OH One test cell
MAS Complex A-AA1802 MD - GE Malaysia PW4056, PW4168 HSI, MC, MO, OH
SAAS Airport T (603) 5039 4502
47200 Subang, Selangor D.E F (603) 5039 4702
Malaysia jacques.juneau@unisonec.com
www.geaviation.com
GE Aviation, Services On-Wing Support Korea DY Kwon (acting) CFM56-All HSI, MC
Aircraft Maintenance B Area Business leader CF34-All HSI, MC
Incheon International Airport T (82) 32 744 5971 CF6-All HSI, MC
2840 Woonseo-Dong, Jung-Ku F (82) 32 744 5979 GE90-All HSI, MC
Incheon 400-430 E-mail: dongyeon.kwon@ge.com GEnx-All HSI, MC
South Korea http://www.geaviation.com/services/ V2500 HSI, MC
maintenance/ows/ PW4000 HSI, MC
GE Aviation, Services On-Wing Support Xiamen Li Jun CFM56-All HSI, MC
No. 3 Road of Xiamen Business leader CF34-3 HSI, MC
Aviation Industry T (86) 592 573 1501 CF34-10 (Planned)
Xiamen, 361006 F (86) 592 573 1605 GE90-All (Planned)
P.R. China E-mail: jun4.li@ge.com GEnx-All (Planned)
http://www.geaviation.com/services/
maintenance/ows/
GMF-AeroAsia Indonesia Marketing building Bimo Agus CFM56-3B1, 3C1 HSI, MC, MO, OH 120,000lb
Soekarno-Hatta International Airport VP Bus. development & cooperation Spey 555 ser HSI, MC, MO, OH
PO Box 1303, BUSH 19130 T (62) 21 550 8609, 550 8670
Cengkareng, Jakarta F (62) 21 550 2489
Indonesia E-mail: marketing@gmf-aeroasia.co.id
www.gmf-aeroasia.co.id
HAESL 70 Chun Choi David Radford RB211-524 C2/D4 HSI, MC, MO, OH 130,000lb
Street Tseung Customer business manager RB211-524G/H-T HSI, MC, MO, OH
Kwan O Industrial Est T: (852) 2260 3264 Trent 500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
New Territories F: (852) 2260 3277 Trent 700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Hong Kong E-mail: david.radford@haesl.com Trent 800 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.haesl.com
Honeywell Aerospace 161 Gul Circle Loke Chee Kheong Delist TPE331 cap.
Singapore Singapore 629619 Plant director
Singapore T: (65) 6861 4533
F: (65) 6869 5257
E-mail: cheekheong.loke@honeywell.com
www.honeywell.com
IHI 229, Tonogaya Kazuo Satou CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two test cells capable
Mizuh-Machi GM sales group CF34-3/-8 HSI, MC, MO, OH of 115,000lb and
Nishitama-Gun T: (81) 425 68 7103 V2500 HSI, MC, MO, OH 60,000lb
Tokyo 190-1297 F: (81) 425 68 7073
Japan E-mail: kazuo_satou
www.ihi.co.jp
Jordan Airmotive Queen Alia Inter/l Airport (QAIA) Randa Al-Farah CF6-80C2 Series HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell for all
PO Box 39180 Marketing Manager CFM56-3 Series HSI, MC, MO, OH listed engines
Code 11104 T: (962) 7982 111 30 RB211-524 Series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Amman F: (962) 6445 2620 JT8D-Std Series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Jordan E-mail: CFM56-5 QEC build-up
randa.farah@jordanairmotive.com
www.jordanairmotive.com
LTQ Engineering 70-90 Garden Drive Marek Wernicke CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH
(formerly Jet Turbine Services, Tullamore VIC 3043 CEO CFM56-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH
JV of Lufthansa Technik Australia T: (61) 3 8346 2002 CF6-80C2 HSI, MC, MO, OH
and Qantas) F: (61) 3 8346 2111 CF6-80E1 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: marek.wernicke@ltq.com.au
Lufthansa Technik AERO 70-90 Garden Drive Joseph Giarrusso CF34-3 series HSI, MC, MO
Tullamarine VIC 3043 Australia Sales Contact CF34-8 series HSI, MC, MO
Australia 11 Kubis Crescent CF34-10E HSI, MC, MO
Dingley Village VIC 3172
Australia
T: (61) 9551 9064
j.giarrusso@lhaero.com
AOG phone: (61) 0 409 368 648
Lufthansa Technik MacroAsia Special Economic Zone Richard Haas CF6-80C2 QEC build-up, minor repairs
Philippines Villamor Air Base VP marketing & sales CF6-80E1 QEC build-up, minor repairs
Pasay City T: (63) 2855 9310 CFM56-3 QEC build-up, minor repairs
Metro Manila F: (63) 2855 9309 CFM56-5B/-5C QEC build-up, minor repairs
1309 Philippines E-mail: richard_haas@ltp.com.ph
Emaill: sales@ltp.com.ph
www.ltp.cpm.ph
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 30/11/2011 14:04 Page 120
Capability
(Current)
Full Overhaul & Testing
CF6 - 80C2 Series
CFM56 - 3 Series
RB211 - 524 Series
JT8D - STD Series
Partial Repair
CFM56 - 5B
(Future)
Full Overhaul & Testing
CFM56 - 5B
CFM56 - 7
Certificates
FAA E31Y372Y
EASA EASA.145.0090
CARC CARC.AMO.02
Ofce: (962 6 4451440) Mobile: (962 7 98211129) Fax: (962 6 4452620)
P.O.Box 39180, Queen Alia Int. Airport , Amman, 11104, Jordan
Email: customer.support@jordanairmotive.com
FPA_check EYB2012_Engine Yearbook 2012 11/11/2011 12:45 Page 3
122 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Engine overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details Types (commercial) Checks Test cells
MTU Maintenance Zhuhai 1 Tianke Road Holger Sindemann V2500-A5 HSI, MC, MO, OH 150,000 lb
Free Trade Zone President & CEO CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Zhuhai, 519030 T (86) 756 8687806-177 CFM56-5B HSI, MC, MO, OH
P.R. China F (86) 756 8687910 CFM56-7 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail:
holger.sindemann@mtuzhuhai.com
www.mtu-zhuhai.com
Pratt & Whitney Eagle Services ASIA Ah Tap Voon JT9D-7Q, 7R4, 7A, 7J HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells for all
Engine Services 51 Calshot Road General sales manager PW4000-94, 100, 112 HSI, MC, MO, OH listed engines
(Eagle Services Asia) Singapore 509927 T (65) 65 48 29 24
F (65) 65 49 46 54
E-mail: voon.ah.tap@pw.utc.com
www.pw.utc.com
Pratt & Whitney Christchurch Engine Centre Steven Robinson JT8D-STD, -200 HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells for all
Engine Services 634 Memorial Ave General sales manager V2500 A1, A5, D5 HSI, MC, MO, OH listed engines
(Christchurch Engine Christchurch International Airport T (64) 3 374 7007 RR Dart All HSI, MC, MO, OH
Center) F (64) 3 374 7001
E-mail: steve.robinson@pw.utc.com
www.pw.utc.com
Pratt & Whitney Shanghai Pratt & Whitney Stephen Sun CFM56-3, -5B, -7B HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cells for listed
Engine Services Aircraft Engine Maintenance General sales manager engines
(Shanghai Engine No.8 Block1 T (86) 21-3923-0023
Center) 8228 Beiqing Road F (86) 21-3923-0088
Qingpu District E-mail: steven.sun@pw.utc.com
Shanghai www.pw.utc.com
Post Code:201707
PR China
SAA Technical Room 309, 3rd floor Ismail Randeree JT8D-7/-7A/-9/-9A/-15/-15A HSI, MC, MO, OH Test cell for JT8D, JT9D,
Hangar 8 Exec. mgr marketing & cust. support /-17/-17A CF6-50C2, RB211-
Jones Road T: (27) 11 978 9993 JT9D-7R4G2/-7F/-7J HSI, MC, MO, OH 524G/H
Gauteng F: (27) 11 978 9994 RB211-524G/H MC
Johannesburg International Airport E-mail: satmarketing@flysaa.com V2500 MC
1627 www.flysaa.com CFM56-3/-5B/-7B MC
South Africa
Sichuan Snecma Aero-engine Shuangliu Airport Jean-Louis Sauvetre CFM56-3 HSI, MC, MO, OH Two tests cells
Maintenance Sichuan Province DG CFM56-5B HSI, MC, MO, OH
610201 Chengdu Chine T : +86 28 8 572 16 93 CFM56-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH
F: +86 28 8 572 16 96
jean-louis-sauvetre@ssamc.com.cn
Snecma Morocco Engine BP87 Mohammed V Airport Alexandre Brun CFM56-3, CFM56-5B HSI, MO, OH one test cell
Services Nouasser - Casablanca GM and CFM56-7 (piece part level)
Morocco T : +212 2 253 69 00
F: +212 2 253 98 42
Singapore Technologies 501 Airport Road Tan Shih Shiuan CFM56-3/-5B/-7B HSI, MC, MO, OH Five test cells
Aerospace Paya Lebar Director, Marketing & Sales, JT8D all HSI, MC, MO, OH
(ST Aerospace) Singapore 539931 ST Aerospace Engines F100 HSI, MC, MO, OH
T: (65) 6382 8353 / 6380 6796 F404 HSI, MC, MO, OH
F: (65) 6282 3010 J85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: tanss@stengg.com T53 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.staero.aero T56/501 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Makila 1A/1A1 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Taikoo Engine Services (Xiamen) No. 5 Gaoqi Nan 3 Road, Simon Smith GE90 Quick Turn Test Cell: 150,000 lbs
TEXL Gaoqi International Airport, Commercial Manager Overhaul
361006, Xiamen, P.R.China T (86) 592 573 3000 Engine Test
F (86) 592 573 1502
E-mail: simon.smith@texl-eng.com
www.texl.com.cn
Thai Airways Tech marketing and sales dept. Bunloo Varasarin CF6-50 MC, Mo, OH CF6-50/-80C2
Technical department Dir. tech. mktg. & sales dept. CF6-80C2 MC, Mo, OH PW4158
Suvarnabhumi Airport T: (662) 137 6300 PW4158 MC Trent 800
Bangphli Samut Prakarn 10540 F: (662) 137 6942 Trent 800 MC
Thailand E-mail: bunloo.v@thaiairways.com
www.thaiairways.com
Turbomeca Africa Atlas Road Robert Bonarius Turmo 3C4, 4C HSI, MC, MO, OH Turmo
PO Box 7005 Manager sales & customer service Makila 1A, 1A1, 1A2, 1K2 HSI, MC, MO, OH Makila
Bonearo Park 1622 T: (27) 11 927 2000 Arrius 2K2, 2K1, 2B1, 2B2 HSI, MC, MO, OH Arrius
South Africa F: (27) 11 927 2956 Arriel series MC Adour
E-mail: info@turbomeca.co.za Adour MC
www.turbomeca.co.za
Abbrevations
HIS: hot section inspection
MC:module change
OH:full engine overhaul
MO: module overhaul
If you wish to be listed in next year’s EYB contact jason.holland@ubmaviation.com
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 122
123 The Engine Yearbook 2012
APU overhaul directory — worldwide
Company Address Contact details APU types Capabilities
Abu Dhabi Aircraft Technologies PO Box 46450, Kirubel Tegene GTCP331-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Abu Dhabi International Airport VP Sales & Marketing GTCP331-250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Abu Dhabi T (971) 2 505 7530 GTCP331-350 HSI, MC, MO, OH
UAE F (971) 2 575 7263
E-mail: commercial@adat.ae
www.adat.ae
Aerotec International 3007 E Chambers St Colin Fairclough GTCP36-150RR/RJ HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP36-300
Phoenix Director of sales GTCP85-98 HSI, MC, MO, OH
AZ 85040 T (1) 602 253 4540 GTCP85-129 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA F (1) 602 252 0395 GTCP131-9A/B/D HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: cfairclough@aerotecinternational.com GTCP331-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.aerotecinternational.com GTCP331-250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP331-500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TSCP700-4B/5/7E HSI, MC, MO, OH
RE220 HSI, MC, MO, OH
APS500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
APS2000 HSI, MC, MO, OH
APS2300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
APS3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Air Asia Tainan Airfield Glenn C.L. Lee GTCP85-98 HSI, MC, MO, OH
# 1000, Sec. 2 Ta-Tung Rd. Director, Marketing GTCP85-129 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Tainan 7025 T (886) 6 268 1911 Ext. 205 / 260-5907
Taiwan E-mail: 346264@mail.airasia.com.tw
Aviation Power Support 2415 W, Arkansas Street Dale Owens GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Durant Senior VP
OK 74701 T (1) 580 920 0535
USA F (1) 580 920 1235
E-mail: dowens@apsmro.com
Air India Engineering Department S.S.Katiyar PW901 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Old Airport Deputy GM (Eng.) GTCP331-250H HSI, MC, MO, OH
Mumbai T (91)-22-2626 3237 GTCP131-9B HSI, MC, MO, OH
400029 F (91) 22-2615 7068 / 2615 7046
India E-Mail: SS.Katiyar@airindia.in
Air New Zealand Engineering Geoffrey Roberts Road Paul Chisholm GTCP85-129 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Services (ANZES) PO Box 53098 Account manager APU marketing, sales GTCP95 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Auckland International Airport, M (+61) 0417790059 GTCP331-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
1730 Auckland F (+64) 3 374 7319 GTCP331-250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
New Zealand E-mail: paul.chisholm@airnz.co.nz GTCP131-3B HSI MC MO OH HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.airnz.co.nz
Ameco Beijing P.O. Box 563 Christian Reck GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Beijing Capital Intl. Airport Executive Director Sales & Supply
100621 Beijing T (86) 10 6456 1122-4000
P.R.China F (86) 10 6456 7974
E-Mail: reck@ameco.com.cn
American Airlines 3900 N Mingo Rd Bobby Bigpond GTCP85-98DHF HSI, MC, MO, OH
Maintenance & Engineering MD 21 Senior contract account manager GTCP131-9 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Center Tulsa T (1) 918 292 2582 GTCP131-9B HSI, MC, MO, OH
OK 74166 F (1) 918 292 3864 GTCP331-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA E-mail: bobby.bigpond@aa.com GTCP331-500B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Alturdyne 660 Steele Street Frank Verbeke T62 Series HSI, MC, MO, OH
El Cajon President One test cell
CA 92020 T (1) 619 440 5531
USA F (2) 619 442 0481
fverbeke@alturdyne.com
www.alturdyne.com
Aveos Fleet Performance 2311 Alfred-Nobel Blvd, Zip 8060 Brenda Stevens GTCP36-300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Ville Saint-Laurent, (QC) Market Intelligence Analyst
H4S 2B6 T (1) 514 856-7158
Canada brenda.stevens@aveos.com
business@aveos.com
www.aveos.com
Chase Aerospace 4493 36th Street Brad Scarr GTCP36 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Orlando Managing Director GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Florida 32811 T (1) 407 812 4545 GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA F (1) 407 812 6260
www.chaseaerospace.com
Chromalloy 391 Industrial Park Road James Furguson GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
San Antonio VP & GM GTCP331-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Texas 78226 T (1) 210 331 2405 GTCP331-250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA E-mail: cpssatx@chromalloy.com
Dallas Airmotive 900 Nolen Drive, STE 100 Christopher Pratt GTCP36 HSI, MC, MO, OH
(BBA Aviation) Grapevine Director of Marketing RE100 MC
TX 76051 T (1) 214 956 3001
USA F (1) 214 956 2810
E-mail: turbines@BBAAviationERO.com
www.BBAAviationERO.com
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124 The Engine Yearbook 2012
APU overhaul directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details APU types Capabilities
Delta TechOps Dept 460 Jack Turnbill GTCP131-9 HSI, MC, MO, OH
1775 Aviation Blvd VP technical sales GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Atlanta Hartsfield T (1) 404 773 5192
International Airport, Atlanta F (1) 404 714 5461
GA 30320 E-mail: service@deltatechops.com
USA www.deltatechops.com
Euravia Engineering Euravia House Steve Clarkson ST6L HSI, MC, MO, OH
Colne Road Director customer services GTCP165 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Kelbrook T (44) 1282 844 480
Lancashire F (44) 1282 844 274
BB18 6SN E-mail: steve.clarkson@euravia.aero
UK www.euravia.aero
El Al Israel Airlines PO Box 41 Eli Uziel GTCP331-200A HSI, MC, MO, OH
Ben Gurion International Airport Marketing & sales manager
Tel Aviv T (972) 3 9717278 GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
70100 F (972) 3 9717205 GTCP660-4 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Israel E-mail: uziele@elal.co.il GTCP131 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.elaltech.com
EPCOR (subsidiary of Bellsingel 41 Paul Chun GTCP331-350 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Air France KLM) 1119 NT Schiphol-Rijk MD GTCP131-9 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Netherlands T (31) 20 316 1740 GTCP331-500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
F (31) 20 316 1777 APS 2300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: sales@epcor.nl
www.epcor.nl
Finnair Finnair Technical Services Mika Hänninen APS 3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Helsinki-Vantaa Airport Vice President, Sales and marketing
DE/83 T (358) 9 818 6443
01053 FINNAIR F (358) 9 818 6900
Finland mika.hanninen@finnair.com
www.finnairtechnicalservices.com
GMF AeroAsia Marketing Building Winston T. Milner GTCP36-4A HSI, MC, MO, OH
(Garuda Indonesia Group) Soekarno Hatta Intíl Airport VP sales & marketing GTCP85-129 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Cengkareng 19130 T (62) 21 550 8609 GTCP85-184/185 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Indonesia F (62) 21 550 2489 TSCP700-4B/E HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: marketing@gmf-aeroasia.co.id
www.gmf-aeroasia.co.id
H+S Aviation H+S Aviation APU centre Steve Bull PW901A HSI, MC, MO, OH
(BBA Aviation) Airport Service Rd Sales director GTCP36-100/-150 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Portsmouth, T (44) 23 9230 4256 GTCP331-200/250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Hants PO3 5PJ F (44) 23 9230 4020 T-62T-40-1 HSI, MC, MO, OH
UK steve.bull@hsaviation.co.uk
www.hsaviation.com
Honeywell Aerospace Frankfurter Str. 41-65 Volker Wallrodt GTCP36 HSI, MC, MO, OH
(Germany) D-65479 Raunheim T: (49) 6142 405 201 GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Germany F: (49) 6142 405 390 GTCP131-9 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: volker.wallrodt@honeywell.com GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.honeywell.com GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
RE220 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TSCP700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Honeywell Aerospace 161 Gul Circle Loke Chee Kheong GTCP36 HSI, MC, MO, OH
(Singapore) Singapore 629619 Plant Director GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
T (65) 686 14 533 GTCP131-9 HSI, MC, MO, OH
F (65) 6869 5257 GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: cheekheong.loke@honeywell.com
www.honeywell.com
Honeywell Aerospace Engine Services Brian Shurman GTCP36 HSI, MC, MO, OH
(USA) 1944 East Sky Harbor Circle Aftermarket Services, Mechanical GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
MS 2101-2N T: 602-365-3279 GTCP131-9 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Phoenix 85034 F: 602-365-4029 GTCP165-1B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Arizona E-mail: Brian.Shurman@honeywell.com GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA www.honeywell.com GTCP660-4 HSI, MC, MO, OH
RE220 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TSCP700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Iberia Iberia Maintenance Jose Luis QuirÛs Cuevas GTCP36-300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Madrid-Barajas Airport. La Muñoza. Commercial & Business Development director GTCP85-98DHF HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-28042 Madrid T (34) 91 587 5132 GTCP131-9A HSI, MC, MO, OH
Spain F (34) 91 587 4991
E-mail: jlquirosc@iberia.es
www.iberiamaintenance.com
Inflite (Southend) North Hangar Ken Tracy GTCP36-100M HSI, MC, MO, OH
WAS (Components) Aviation Way Commercial director GTCP36-150M HSI, MC, MO, OH
Southend T (44) 1702 348601 GTCP85-115 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Essex SS2 6UN E-mail: sales@inflite-southend.co.uk GTCP85-129 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
UK www.inflite.co.uk GTCP85-71 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP36-4A HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP85-98 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP85-180/185 HSI, MC, MO, OH
All associated L.R.U.’S
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 124
125 The Engine Yearbook 2012
APU overhaul directory 2012 — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details APU types Capabilities
Innotech Aviation 10225 Ryan Avenue Scott Mistine GTCP36-100/-150 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Dorval Director of Maintenance
Quebec H9P 1A2 T (1) 514 420 2943
Canada scott.mistine@innotech-excaire.com
IAI - Bedek Aviation Israel Aerospace Industries Tali Yoresh GTCP85 Series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Bedek Aviation Group Director sales & customer service GTCP131-9A/B/D HSI, MC, MO, OH
Components Division T (972) 3 935 7395 GTCP331-200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Ben Gurion IntÌl Airport F (972) 3 935 7757 GTCP331-250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
70100 E-mail: tyoresh@iai.co.il GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Israel www.iai.co.il GTCP36-150XX
Japan Airlines International M1 Building Maintenance Centre Masaaki Haga GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
3-5-1 Haneda Airport, Ota-ku, MD engineering & maintenance GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Tokyo 144-0041 T (81) 3 3474 4134 TSCP700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Japan PW601A HSI, MC, MO, OH
JAT Airways JAT Tehnika Srdjan Miskovic GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Aerodrom Beograd 59 VP engineering, maintenance & repair
Beograd 11180 T (381) 11 2601475
Serbia E-mail: srdjan.miskovic@jat-tech.rs
www.jat-tehnika.aero
Korean Air Maintenance Planning Dep. T (82) 2 2656 3574 GTCP331-250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Maintenance & Engineering Korean Air F (82) 2 2656 8120
1370, Gonghang-dong E-mail: selmph@koreanair.co.kr
Gangseo-gu www.mro.koreanair.co.kr
Seoul, Korea
157-712
Lufthansa Technik Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 10 Mark Johnson PW901A HSI, MC, MO, OH
Aero Alzey D-55232 Alzey CEO
Germany T (49) 6731 497 888
F (49) 6731 497 197
E-mail: m.johnson@lhaero.com
www.lhaero.com
Lufthansa Technik Dept HAM TS Walter Heerdt APS 2000 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Weg beim J‰ger 193 SVP marketing & sales APS 2300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
D-22335 Hamburg T (49) 40 5070 5553 APS 3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Germany F (49) 40 5070 5605 PW901A HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: marketing.sales@lht.dlh.de GTCP36-300 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.lufthansa-technik.com GTCP85-98/-129H HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP131-9 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP331-200/-250/-350/-500/-600 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP660-4 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TSCP700-4E HSI, MC, MO, OH
Pakistan International Airlines Engineering & Maint. Dept Tariq Farooq GTCP85-129 OH
Quaid-E-Azam International Airport Chief Engineer GTCP660-4 OH
Karachi 75200 Engineering Business Development, PIA TSCP 700-5/4B OH
Pakistan T: (92) 21 9904 3574 GTCP331-250 OH
F: (92) 21 9924 2104
E-mail: tariq.farooq@piac.aero
Piedmont Aviation Component 1031 East Mountain St Alan Haworth GTCP36 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Services Building #320 Director sales & marketing GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Kernersville T (1) 336 776 6279 GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
North Carolina 27284 F (1) 336 776 6301
USA E-mail: alan.haworth@piedmontaviation.com
Pratt & Whitney St Hubert Service Center Brian Rinkevicius ST6L-73 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Canada (Canada) 1000 Marie-Victorin (05DK1) Manager, Customer Service Marketing PT6A/B/C/T HSI, MC, MO, OH
Longueil T (1) 450 647-7543 PW 100
Quebec J4G 1A1 F (1) 450 468 7807 PW150
Canada Brian.Rinkevicius@pwc.ca PW200
www.pwc.ca ST6, ST18
Pratt & Whitney 10 Loyang Crescent Ron Norris APS 3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Canada (Singapore) Loyang Industrial Estate Manager marketing & sales
Singapore 509010 T (65) 6545 3212
F (65) 6542 3615
E-mail: ron.norris@pwc.ca; Brian.Rinkevicius@pwc.ca
www.pwc.ca
Revima APU 1 Avenue du Lathan 47 Jean Michel Baudry GTCP85-98 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Brotonne Capital Holding 76490 Business development manager GTCP331-200/-250 HSI, MC, MO, OH
System subsidiary) Caudebec en caux T (33) 2 35 56 35 82 PW901A/C HSI, MC, MO, OH
France F (33) 2 35 56 35 56 PW980 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: jeanmichel.baudry@revima-apu.com TSCP700-5/-4B/-4E HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.hamiltonsundstrand.com APS 2000 HSI, MC, MO, OH
APS 3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Xavier Mornand APS 500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
T (33) 2 35 56 36 04 APS 1000 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: xavier.mornand@revima-apu.com GTCP131-9A/B HSI, MC, MO, OH
South African Technical Private Bag X12 Kobus Kotze GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Room 212 Hangar 8 Senior manager, APU GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Johannesburg 1627 T (27) 11 978 9513
South Africa E-mail: kobuskotze@flysaa.com
www.flysaa.com
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 125
The Engine Yearbook 2012 126
APU overhaul directory 2012 — worldwide (cont...)
Company Address Contact details APU types Capabilities
SR Technics Sales Department Head of Corporate Communications GTCP85 series* HSI, MC, MO, OH
* in cooperation with 8058 Zurich Airport Tel: +41 43 812 17 17 GTCP131 series* HSI, MC, MO, OH
partner companies Switzerland Karin Freyenmuth GTCP331 series* HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.srtechnics.com karin.freyenmuth@srtechnics.com GTCP660 series* HSI, MC, MO, OH
APS3200* HSI, MC, MO, OH
ATSCP700-4E* HSI, MC, MO, OH
StandardAero Augusta 1550 Hangar Road Tony Gay, engine shop manager GTCP36-100 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Augusta T +(1) 706-771-5677 GTCP-150 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
Ga 30906-9684 F +(1) 706-771-5628 GTCP-3092 HSI,
USA
Bill McIlwraith, APU customer support
T +(1) 706-560-3356
F +(1) 706-790-5122
Greg Washburn, APU crew chief
T +(1) 706-771-5631
F +(1) 706-790-5122
StandardAero Maryville 1029 Ross Drive Tim Fischer GTCP36 series HSI, MC, MO, OH, LRU
Maryville VP & GM GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH, LRU
Tennessee 37801 T + (1) 865-981-4673 RE220 HSI, MC, MO, OH, LRU
USA F + (1) 865-983-2092 APS2300 HSI, MC, MO, OH, LRU
Toll Free: + (1) 800-906-8726 from USA
apu@standardaero.com
TAP Maintenance & Engineering Marketing and Sales Carlos Ruivo GTCP85 series HSI, MC, MO, OH
P.O. Box 50194 VP Marketing and Sales APS3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Lisbon Airport T (+351) 21 841 5975
1704-801 Lisbon F (+351) 21 841 5913
Portugal E-mail: marketing.me@tap.pt
www.tapme.pt
APS3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
APS500 T62-T-40C11 HSI, MC, MO, OH
TAP Maintenance and Marketing and Sales Anderson Fenocchio APS500 T62-T-40C11 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Engineering Brazil Estrada das Can·rias, 1862 Ricardo Vituzzo GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
21941-480 Rio de Janeiro E-mail: anderson.fenocchio@tapme.com.br GTCP36-150 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Brazil E-mail: ricardo.vituzzo@tapme.com.br GTCP660-4 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.tapme.com.br GTCP331-200ER HSI, MC, MO, OH
TSCP700-4B/-4E/-5 HSI, MC, MO, OH
GTCP131-9B HSI, MC, MO, OH
Triumph Air Repair 4010 S 43rd Place Jim Jackalone GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Phoenix Vice President ñ Sales and Customer Support GTCP131 HSI, MC, MO, OH
AZ 85040-2022 Phone 602-470-7231 GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
USA Fax 602-470-7230 GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
jjackalone@triumphgroup.com PW901 HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.triumphgroup.com TSCP700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Triumph Aviation Services 700/160 ñ Moo 1 Dan McDonald GTCP85 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Asia T. Bankao, A. Pantong VP Sales and Customer Support GTCP131 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Chonburi 20160 T (66) 38-465-070 GTCP331 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Thailand F (66) 38-465-075 GTCP660 HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: dmcdonald@triumphgroup.com PW901A HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.triumphgroup.com TSCP700 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Turkish Technic Ataturk Intíl Airport Gate B Altug Sokeli APS 2000 HSI, MC, MO, OH
34149 Yesilkoy Technical marketing & sales manager APS 3200 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Istanbul T (90) 212 463 6363 X9223 GTCP85-98C/CK/DHF HSI, MC, MO, OH
Turkey F (90) 212 465 2121 GTCP85-129H HSI, MC, MO, OH
E-mail: asokeli@thy.com GTCP139-9B HSI, MC, MO, OH
techmarketing@thy.com GTCP331-250F/H HSI, MC, MO, OH
www.turkishtechnic.com
United Services United Services Maintenance Center Barbara Petino GTCP331 -200, -500 HSI, MC, MO, OH
San Francisco International Airport Sales PW901 HSI, MC, MO, OH
Building 74 Ò SFOUS T (1) 650 634-4269
San Francisco F (1) 650 634 5926
CA 94128-3800 E-mail: barbarapetino@united.com
USA www.unitedsvcs.com
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 126
The Engine Yearbook 2012 127
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
Aero Propulsion Support
Aerospace Welding
Aerospace Component
Services
(P&WC)
Aircraft Ducting Repair
Aviation Power Support
AMETEK Aerospace and
Defense
(Reynosa Service Center)
APECS Engine Center
Britt Metal Processing
Chromalloy
108 May Drive
Harrison
Ohio 45030
USA
890 Michele-Bohec
Blainville
Quebec
Canada J7C 5E2
1000 Marie-Victorin
Longueuil
Quebec
Canada J4G 1A1
101 Hunters Circle
Forney
TX 75126
USA
2415 West Arkansas
Durant
OK 74701
USA
1701 Industrial
Boulevard
Hidalgo
TX 78557
USA (ship-to address)
13642 South West
142nd Avenue
Kendall
FL 33186
USA
15800 North West
49th Avenue
Miami
FL 33014
USA
303 Industrial Park
San Antonio
TX 78226
USA
Allan Slattery
President/CEO
T (1) 513 367 9452
F (1) 513 367 7930
E-mail:
aslattery@aeropropulsion.com
Michel Dussault
Vice President Sales/AMO
Accountable Executive
T (1) 450 435 9210
F (1) 450 435 7851
E-Mail:
mdussault@aerospacewelding.com
Pascale Tremblay
GM
T (1) 450 468 7896
F (1) 450 468 7786
E-Mail:
pascale.tremblay@pwc.ca
Steve Alford
President
T (1) 972 552 9000
F (1) 972 552 4504
E-mail:
repairs@acdri.com
Dale Owens
VP, sales and customer services
T (1) 580 920 0535
F (1) 580 920 1235
E-mail:
dowens@apsmro.com
Joe Lynch
Aftermarket manager
T (1) 978 988 4869
F (1) 215 323 9538
E-mail:
joe.lynch@ametek.com
Nick Troonin
Manager
T (1) 305 255-2677
F (1) 305 255-0277
E-mail:
NickT@a-pecs.com
Web: www.a-pecs.com
Tim Waggoner
Director of Mktg and Bus. Dev.
T (1) 305 621 5200
F (1) 305 625 9487
E-mail: marketing@brittmetal.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Honeycomb seals, compressor
diffusers, compressor shrouds,
turbine nozzles, turbine
supports, engine sheet metal
components,
seals and abradable parts
Exhaust systems, jet pipes,
heat shields, ducting (bleed
pipes, de-icing), tubing, nose
cowls (CL 600), tracks, rings,
landing gear, fuel tanks,
engine mounts, thrust
reverser (CL 600)
Accessory & Component repairs
Gas Generator Cases (PW100),
Liners, Life Cycle Parts,
Fuel Controls, Flow Dividers,
Fuel Nozzles, TSCU, EEC,
Electrical, TSCU, AFU,
Bleed Valves and Fuel Pumps
Engine exhaust tailpipes,
pneumatic ducts, tubes and
manifolds, APU exhaust ducts
Overhaul of internal engine
components for the P&W
PT6, ST6, JT15D, JFTD12,
JT8D, JT8D-200, JT3D and
the Honeywell TPE 331,
TFE 731, GTCP36 APU,
GTCP85 and GTCP331 APU.
Overhaul of the
complete 85 series APU and
its accessories and
selected 36 series APU
accessories
Fuel flowmeters, oil level sensors,
temperature sensors, EGT,
switches, speed sensors,
wiring harnesses
Gearbox Overhaul & Exchange
Certified insitu. blade blending
(on-wing), line maintenance
support, testing, trouble-
shooting, vibration analysis,
breather checks, digital video
borescope inspections, field
service repair team, gearbox
and fan specialists, repair,
modification, overhaul and
sales of JT8D parts,
piece parts and components
Stationary component repair -
Supports, Scrolls, Diffusers,
Compressor, Inlet, Diff. Hsngs.
Hot section components
Exotic materials
Turbine engine modules, cases
and frames, combustors, disks,
shafts, hubs
All Honeywell APUs,
Sundstrand APUs
GTCP-331, GTCP-36, GTCP-131,
TSCP-700,
RR-250 all series,
C30, C40,C47, C20,C28,
PW901 APU, GE CT7
JT3D, JT8D, JT9D, JT15D, PT6A,
PW100, RB211, Dart, Avon,
APUs, Garrett, Sunstrand
PT6, JT15D, PW100, PW150,
PW200, PW300, PW500 and
PW600
JT3D, JT8D, JT8D-200, CF6-50,
CF6-80C2, CFM-56-3/-3B/-3C,
CFM-56-7B, PW4000, V2500
P&W PT6, ST6, JT15D,
JFTD12, JT8D, JT8D-200 and
JT3D and Honeywell TPE
331, TFE 731, GTCP36,
GTCP85, GTCP331
CFM56, CF6, PW, GP7200,
CF34
Honeywell engines
JT8D - 7B, -9A, -15, -15A, -17
JT8D - 209, -217A, -217C, -219
APUs: GTCP331, GTCP131-9
GTCP660, TSCP700, GTCP85
Pneumatics: Air Cycle Machine
Air Turbine Starters, Valves &
more
Hydraulics: Hsngs, Adapter
Blocks
CF6, CFM56, PW2000,
PW4000,
RB211-535, V2500
GTAW and resistance welding,
vacuum and atmosph. furnace
braze and heat treatment,
precision machining, NDT,
liquid penetrant, pressure test,
plasma welding, EB welding
FPI, MPI, eddy current, fusion
welding for robotic thermo
spray cells (plasma, HVOF,
thermo spray) full
metallurgical lab
conventional milling and turning
equipment, computerised
spot and seam welding,
furnace brazing
Manual brazing, brazing,
Automatic Welding,
CNC Machining,
Manual Machining, no mechanical
machining, blending, balancing,
vacuum furnace, pressure test,
FPI, MPI, STI, X-Ray,
eddy current pressure flush,
water jet stripping,
ultrasonic cleaning,
plasma spray, painting, plating,
TBC, manual &automatic peening
(shot & glass), Nano-plating
(Q4 2010)
TIG welding, NDT, CNC
machining
TID, MIG and resistance welding,
plasma spray, vacuum furnace
braze, precision machining, NDT,
liquid penetrant, MPI, heat
treating, shotpeening,
balancing, air flow mach
precision hand blend,
specialised coating, accescory
test benches, APU
test cell
Intricate assembly, fuel flow
calibration
JT8D engine overhaul, repair &
modifications. ASB: 6431
specialists, HPC exchanges
for quick turn time,
custom work scopes
Balancing, Vacuum Brazing,
Plasma and Thermal Coatings
Welding, NDT, Heat Treating
CNC Machining, Paint and more
CNC grinding, CNC machining,
CNC welding, coordinate
measuring machine, electron
beam welding, gas tungsten arc
welding, heat treating, non-
destructive inspection, plasma
spray, vacuum brazing
NORTH AMERICA
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:21 Page 127
128 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Chromalloy
Chromalloy
Chromalloy
Chromalloy
Chromalloy
Chromallloy
Chromalloy
Chromalloy
330 Blaisdell Road
Orangeburg
NY 10962
30 Dart Road
Newnan
GA 30265
USA
3636 Arrowhead Drive
Carson City
NV 89706
USA
1720 National Boulevard
Midwest City
OK 73110
USA
6161 West Polk Street
Phoenix
AZ 85043
USA
2100 West 139th Street
Gardena
CA 90249
USA
1071 Industrial Place
El Cajon
CA 92020
USA
1777 Stergios Road
Calexico
CA 92231
USA
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Aircraft and industrial gas
turbine engines
HPC components
HPT/LPT blades and vanes
Gas turbine components
Gas turbine engine components
High and low pressure turbine
vanes
Gas turbine engine components
High and low pressure turbine
vanes and blades
PW4000, PW2000, V2500,
JT9D, JT8D, V94, GG8, CF6,
CFM56
PW4000, 94" RCC, 100", 112",
PW2000, JT9D, FT4, FT8, GG3,
GG4, GG8, JT8D, RB211,
RB211-524,
RB211-535 E4, Trent 500,
Trent 700,
Trent 800, V2500, Mars, Titan,
Taurus
LM1600, LM2500, LM5000,
LM6000,
CF6-50, CF6-6, CF6-80A,
CF6-80C2,
CF6-80E, CFM56-2, CFM56-3,
CFM56-5A, CFM56-5B,
CFM56-5C,
CFM56-7, JT8D-200, PW2000
501K, 570/571K, 601K, CF34-3,
CF700/CJ610, CT58, JT8D-200,
JT9D-3/-20J, JT9D-7Q,
PW2000,
501D, RB211-535E4
GTCP131, GTCP331-200/250,
GTCP 331-350, GTCP36-
100/150, GTCP36-280/300,
GTCP660, GTCP85, LTS101,
TFE731, TPE331, TSCP700
LM1600, LM2500, LM5000,
LM6000,
CF6-50, CF6-6, CF6-80A,
CF6-80C2,
CF6-80E, CFMI, Tf39/HT-90,
F108, F404
CF6-6, CF6-50, CF6-80A,
CF6-80C2, LM2500, LM5000,
LM6000, TF39,
F101/F108/F110, CF34,
TF34/9, JT3D,
JT8D, JT9D, PW2000, PW4000,
CFM56-2, CFM56-3, CFM56-5,
CFM56-7, RB211-22B, RB211-524,
RB211-535, TAY, V2500
(A1), V2500
(A5), V2500 (D5)
LM2500, CF34-4, CF6-50, CF6-6,
CF6-80A, CF6-80C2, LM6000,
CFM56-3, CFM56-5A, CFM56-5B,
CFM56-5C, CFM56-7, GG4, JT3D,
JT8D, JT8D-200, JT9D-3/-20J, JT9D-
7Q, JT9D-7R4D/E/H, JT9D-7R4G2,
PW4000, GTCP331-200/250,
GTCP331-350, GTCP-131-9,
V2500A1, V2500A5/D5
CBN abrasive tip, customized
repair development, EDM, full
engineering analysis, grinding,
heat treating, hydrogen flouride
cleaning, laser drilling, LPW,
metallurgical analysis, multiple
axis machining, precision
machining, tool design/
manufacture, vacuum brazing,
welding
Coating restoration, EDM, grinding,
plasma spray, vacuum brazing,
water jet stripping and cutting
Acid strip, alkaline cleaning,
atomic absorption analysis,
automated TIG welding, belt
sanding, braze pre-forms, braze
sinter cake, brazing, CNC CO2
laser fusion, CNC machining,
computerized airflow testing,
computerized tomograph
inspection, CMM, eddy
current inspection, EDM, electro-
stripping, FPI, fluoride-ion cleaning,
glass bead peening, grinding, grit
blast, investment casting,
metallurgical analysis, SEM,
welding
Atomic absorption analysis,
braze pre-forms, chemical
stripping/cleaning, CNC welding,
CMM, DDH, electro plating,
electron beam welding,
fluoride-ion cleaning,
heat treating, laser drilling,
laser machining, LPW, SEM,
welding
Acid strip, ATPS, aiflow testing,
curvic grinding, DERs, eddy current
inspection, EDM, electro-chemical
grinding, electron beam welding
TIG and laser weld, laser drilling,
EDM, brazing, vacuum furnaces,
CNC machining & grinding, high
temperature diffusion coatings,
air plasma spray, NDT: FPI, airflow
and EMU assembly & set
management
DER repairs, turbine seals repair,
CNC welding, CMM, heat treating
CNC grinding, eddy current
inspection, electro-chemical
grinding, electro-discharge
machining, electron beam
welding, FPI, laser drilling/cutting,
laser CO2 welding, machining,
plasma spray, shot peening
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:21 Page 128
FPA_check Techspace Aero_2_EYB2012 01/11/2011 17:04 Page 3
130 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
Chromalloy
Chromalloy
Component Repair
Technologies
ETI
GE Aviation, Services -
Cincinnati
Aviation Component Service
Center
GE Aviation, Services -
Strother Field
GE Aviation, Services - McAllen
GE Aviation, Services -
Tri-Reman
GE Aviation, Services -
Symmes Road
GKN Aerospace - Chem-tronics
601 Marshall Phelps Rd
Windsor
CT 06095
USA
14042 Distribution Way
Dallas
TX 75234
8507 Tyler Blvd
Mentor
Ohio 44060
USA
8131 East 46th Street
Tulsa
OK 74145
USA
201 W. Crescentville Rd
Cincinnati
OH 45246-1733
Strother Field Industrial
Park
Arkansas City
KS 67005
6200 South 42nd Street
McAllen
TX 78503
3390 East Locust Street
Terre Haute
IN 47803
3024 Symmes Road
Hamilton
OH 45014-1334
Box 1604
1150 West Bradley Ave
El Cajon
CA 92022
USA
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Rich Mears
Sales manager
T (1) 440 255 1793
F (1) 440 225 4162
E-mail:
richmears@componentrepair.com
Andy Clark
Director of Sales & Marketing
C (1) 918 232 5703
T (1) 918 627 8484
E-mail:
andy.clark@etitulsa.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
+1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
+1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
+1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
+1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
+1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
Steve Pearl
GM
T (1) 619 258 5220
F (1) 619 448 6992
E-mail:
steve.pearl@usa.gknaerospace.com
Gas turbine engine components
Gas turbine engine components
Cases, shafts, bearing housings,
frames
VSV bushings, lever arms, anti-
vortex tubes, gangnut channels,
bearing housings, shoulder
studs, air seals, guide plates,
comb. retaining blots, air inlet
screens
Cases, frames, structures,
combustors, LLP
HPT shrouds,
LPT & HPT nozzles
LPT nozzles and blades
LPT vanes
HPC supports and hangers
HPC vane sectors & stationary
seals
Structures/honeycomb
Frames/cases
Cases, frames, structures
Combustors, LLP
HPT blades & shrouds
LPT & HPT nozzles
Fan blades, fan discs, fan
cases, compressor
blades, compressor cases
GG3, GG4, GG6, CF6-80A, CF6-80C2,
CFM56-2, CFM56-3, CFM56-5A,
CFM56-5B, CFM56-5C, CFM56-7,
V2500A5/D5, JT8D, JT8D-200,
PW2000, PW4000-94"
CF34, TF39, CF6-6, CF6-50,
CF6-80A, CF6-80C2, LM2500,
LM5000, CFM56-2, CFM56-3,
CFM56-5A, CFM56-5B,
CFM56-7B, V2500-A1, V2500-A5,
V2500-D5, JT8D-1/17AR,
JT8D-209/219, PT6/ST6,
PW2000, PW4000,
RB211-22B, RB211-524,
RB211-535C,
RB211-535E4
JT8D, JT8D-200, CFM56,
CF6-6, -50, -80A, -80C2, CT7,
CF34, PW2000, PW4000,
V2500
JT8D, JT9D, PW2000,
PW4000,
PT6, CFM56, CF34, CF6,
V2500
CFM56, CF6, GE90, CF34,
LM (Industrial Engines)
CF34-3/-8/-10
CFM56-2/-3/-5B/-7
CT7, T700
CF6-50, CF6-80A/C/E,
CFM56-2/-3/-5/-7/-7B
CF34-3/-8/-10
LM2500/5000/6000
GE90-94B/-115B
CFM56-2/-3/-5/-7
LM1600/2500/5000/6000
CF6-6/-50/-80
GE90
CF34
CF34-3/-8/-10
CFM56-2/-3/-5B/-7
CT7, T700
JT9D, PW2037,
PW4000,
RB211-524, -535,
Trent,
AE3007,
CFM56-2, -3, -5A, -5B, -5C, -7,
CF6-50, -80A, -80C, CF34,
ALF502, 507, TFE731,
V2500
Adhesive bonding, brazing,
eddy current inspection,
FPI, grinding, heat treatment,
magnetic particle inspection,
non-destructive testing,
ultrasonic inspection, vacuum
furnace, x-ray inspection
CMM, EDM, FPI, heat treatment &
furncace braze, horizontal milling,
lathe turning, profiling system,
radiographic inspection, surface
grinding, TIG welding, vertical
milling, vibro super polishing
Chemical stripping, plating,
HVOF, EBW, CNC machining,
vacuum furnace,
NDT, X-ray, eddy current
Wet and dry abrasive cleaning,
grinding, heat treating,
machining, surface treatment,
TIG, welding, brazing, vacuum
brazing, SWET NDT,FPI,
dimensional inspection
Cleaning/surface treatments
Non-destructive testing
Welding/brazing
Coatings, CNC and adaptive
milling
Robotic metal spray
Wire and CNC EDM systems
Lean induction furnace
Superior LPT yield programs
Salvation reviews
Kitting and assembly programs
Accessory repairs
Honeycomb seal & segment
repairs, LPT cases and frames,
honeycomb replacement, weld
repair, plasma spray, honey-
comb manufacturing,
TIG and EG welding, vacuum
brazing and heat treating,
balancing, NDT,TBC, plasma
spray, SVPA, electrochemical
grinding, laser cutting and
drilling, EDM
Cleaning/surface treatments
Non-destructive testing
Welding/brazing
Coatings, CNC and adaptive
milling, Robotic metal spray
Wire and CNC EDM systems
Lean induction furnace
Chemical stripping, EBW,
HVOF/plasma,
waterjet technology, high
speed optical inspection,
precision airfoil recontouring,
automated airfoil machining
and finishing
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:22 Page 130
131 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Honeywell Aerospace -
Phoenix
(Engine accessories)
Honeywell Aerospace
(Engine piece part advanced
repair)
Honeywell Aerospace
(Engine piece part advanced
repair)
Honeywell Aerospace
(Engine accessories)
Honeywell Aerospace
(Engine accessories)
Honeywell Aerospace
(Engine accessories)
Jet Aviation Specialists
Liburdi Turbine Services
Nordam
Repair Division
PAS Technologies
Pratt & Whitney Canada
Accessories and Component
Services
1944 East Sky Harbor
Circle
Phoenix
AZ 85034
USA
1944 East Sky Harbor
Circle
Phoenix
AZ 85034
USA
85 Beeco Road
Greer
SC 29652
USA
3475 North Wesleyan
Boulevard
Rocky Mount
North Carolina, 27804
USA
6930 North Lakewood
Avenue
Tulsa, Oklahoma
74117
USA
Hangar 8, Slemon Prk
Summerside
Prince Edward Island,
COB 2A0
Canada
3373 North West
107th Street
Miami
Florida 33167
USA
400 Highway 6 North
Dundas
Ontario
L9H 7K4
Canada
11200 East Pine St.
Tulsa
OK 74116
USA
1234 Atlantic Street
North Kansas City
MO 64116-4142
USA
(other facilities at
Hillsboro, OH; Miramar,
FL;
Phoenix, AZ, Singapore
and Ireland)
1000 Marie-Victorin
Longueuil
Quebec
Canada J4G 1A1
Bill Wright
Technical sales
APU/propulsion
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Bill Wright
Technical sales
APU/propulsion
T 480 592 4182
E-mail: bill.wright@honeywell.com
Bill Wright
Technical sales
APU/propulsion
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Bill Wright
Director, technical sales
Mechanical
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Bill Wright
Director, technical sales
Mechanical
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Bill Wright
Director, technical sales
Mechanical
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Andrew Walmsley
VP, sales and marketing
T (1) 305 681 0160
F (1) 305 681 7356
E-mail:
awalmsley@jas-inc.com
Robert Tollett
Director of Marketing
T (1) 905 689 0734
F (1) 905 689 0739
E-mail:
rtollett@liburdi.com
Thomas Henning
Director, marketing
T (1) 918 878 6313
F (1) 918 878 6796
E-mail:
thenning@nordam.com
Marsha Farmer
Communications director
T (1) 816 556 4600
F (1) 816 556 4615
E-mail:
marsha_farmer@pas-
technologies.com
Pascale Tremblay
GM
T (1) 450 468 7896
F (1) 450 468 7786
E-mail
pascale.tremblay@pwc.ca
Engine generators/IDG/CSD
Fuel/oil coolers and heaters
Fuel control units and
components
All engine related accessories
Complete cold section part
restoration including gear
boxes, cases, knife edge
seals,impellers,
blisks, fan blades, compressor
blades
Complete hot section part
restoration, fan blades,
compressor blades, stator
vanes, combustors, NGVs,
turbine blades,
cases, seals
Mechanical and hydraulic
actuators, hydromechanical
fuel controls, pneumatic fuel
controls
Aircraft heat exchangers,
precoolers, ozone converters,
valves, water separators,
fuel heaters, oil coolers
Fuel controls, flow dividers,
fuel pumps, fuel nozzles
propeller governors, pumps
electronics, electronic engine
controls (EEC), torque signal
conditioners, electrical
equipment, generators
harnesses
Combustion assemblies,
turbine cases, stators,
supports, spinner cones
Industrial turbine blades,
buckets, NGVs, vane stators,
fuel nozzles
Exhaust nozzles, sleeves,
plugs, centrebodies, fairings,
ducts, thrust reversers
Commercial fan blades, carbon
seals, military fan blades,
compressor blades,
variable guide vanes, rotor
assemblies, bevel gears, seal
seats, housings,
honeycomb, feltmetal,
shrouds
Component repairs
All Honeywell engines / APUs
JT8, JT9, JT10, JT11, JT15D,
CF6, CT7, CFM56, CF34,
PT6, P108, PW100, PW100,
PW4000,
RB211, RR250
V2500, CF34, PW100, PT6,
JT15D, T56, 501K, TFE731,
TPE331, all small 36 series
APU, large 36 series APU,
331-200/250, 331-
350, 331-500, 131-9
V2500, CF34, PW100, PT6,
JT15D, T56, 501K, TFE731,
TPE331, all small 36 series
APUs, large 36 series APUs,
331-200/250, 331-
350, 331-500, 131-9, T53,
T54, AGT 1500
All Honeywell engines
All Honeywell engines / APUs
JT8, JT9, JT10, JT11, JT15D,
CF6, CT7, CFM56, CF34,
PT6, P108, PW100, PW100,
PW4000,
RB211, RR250,
Spey, Tay, T64, T76
All Honeywell engines
PW100, PW4000
CF6-80C2, CF6-50, CF6-6
CFM56-3, CF34, T56, TF33
JT8D-200, JT8D
Industrial Avon, Marine Spey,
Industrial RB211, ALF502,
A501K, LM2500, LM1600,
authorised Rolls-Royce industrial
repair vendor
CF6-50, CF6-80, CFM56,
JT8D, JT9D, PW2000,
PW4000, V2500,
RB211
JT8D, JT9D, CF6, CFM56,
PW2000, PW4000, F117,
V2500, JT15D, F100, GG4,
TF39, PW100, PW300,
PW901, RB211, Spey, Tay
All P & WC engine series
EBW, CNC, TIG, FPI, MPI, CMM,
HVOF, NDT, EBM, LPPS, EDM,
waterjet
EBW, CNC, TIG, FPI, MPI, CMM,
HVOF, NDT, EBM, LPPS, EDM,
waterjet, EBPVD, laser welding,
fluoride ion cleaning, "jet fix"
crack restoration,
platinum aluminide coatings,
full brazing and heat treat
Plasma spray, paint, welding,
brazing, precision machining,
grinding NDT, heat treatment
coatings, HVOF and air
plasma, heat treat, GDAW,
PAW and laser welding, EDM,
NDT, X-ray
Vacuum brazing and bonding
Inspection, machining, grinding,
finishing, lapping, CNC
milling, welding, vacuum and
atmospheric heat treatment,
automated glass and ceramic
shot peening, plasma and
D-gun coating, full NDT, EBW,
airfoil straightening and
blending, electrolytic,
chemical and mechanical
stripping, grit blasting,
vibratory finishing,
plating, HVOF, TIG, FPI, MPI,
CMM, LPPS, EDM
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:23 Page 131
132 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
Pratt & Whitney Canada
Accessories and Component
Services
Pratt & Whitney Canada
Accessories and Component
Services
Pratt & Whitney Component
Solutions
Pratt & Whitney Engine
Services
Accessories and Component
Services
Propulsion Technologies Int'l
(A JV of Snecma Services
cleaning, diamond grinding,
and Technology Corp.)
Timken Aftermarket Solutions
TCI - Turbine Controls
Turbine Components (TCI)
Whyco Finishing
Technologies
(Windsor Airmotive,
Connecticut)
Barnes Aerospace Aftermarket
(Windsor Airmotive, Ohio)
Barnes Aerospace Aftermarket
Woodward Aircraft Engine
Systems
3101 Hammon Road
Wichita Falls, TX, USA
1000 Marie Victorin Blvd
Longueuil, Quebec,
Canada
J4G 1A1
4905 Stariha Drive
Muskegon, MI, USA
1525 Midway Park Road
Bridgeport, WV, USA
15301 SW 29th Street
Miramar
Florida 33027
USA
3110 N Oakland St
Mesa,
Az 85215-1144
USA
5 Old Windsor Road
Bloomfield
CT 06002
USA
8985 Crestmar Point
San Diego, CA 92121
USA
670 Waterbury Road
Thomaston
CT 06787
USA
7 Connecticut South Dr.
East Granby
CT 06026
USA
9826 Crescent Park Dr.
West Chester
OH 45069
USA
One Woodward Way
PO Box 405
Rockton
Ill 61072-0405
USA
Robert Kirsh
General Manager
T (1) 940-761-9200
F (1) 940-761-9292
E-mail:
robert.kirsh@pwc.ca
Eric MacIntyre
Marketing & Customer Service Mgr
T (1) 450-442-6802
F (1) 450-442-6810
Pete Gibson
General Manager
T (1) 231-798-8464
F (1) 231-798-0150
E-Mail:
pete.gibson@pwc.ca
Jeff Powell
Manager
T (1) 304-842-1207
F (1) 304-842-1229
E-mail:
jeff.powell@pwc.ca
Oscar Molina
oscar.molina@ptcgrp.com
T: (1) 786 999 0672
Web: www.snecma-services.com
Larry Batchelor
Sr Product Sales Manager
Tel:- +1-480-606-3011
Fax:- +1-480-635-0058
Email:
larry.batchelor@timken.com
www.timken.com/mro
David Tetreault
VP, sales
T (1) 860 761 7533
F (1) 860 761 7591
E-mail:
dtetreault@tcimro.com
Raffee Esmailians
T (1) 858 678 8568
F (1) 858 678 0703
M 858 442 6045
E-mail:
Raffee@turbinecomponents.com
Peter Masella
Director of Sales and Marketing
T (1) 860 283 5826
F (1) 860 283 6153
E-mail:
peterm@whyco.com
Web: www.whyco.com
William Gonet
VP, Sales
T (1) 860 687 5282
F (1) 860 653 0397
E-mail:
wgonet@barnesaero.com
William Gonet
VP, Sales
T (1) 860 687 5282
F (1) 860 653 0397
E-mail:
wgonet@barnesaero.com
Tony Dzik
Manager, cust. support
and bus. dev.
T (1) 815 639 6983
F (1) 815 624 1929
E-mail:
adzik@woodward.com
Component repairs
Accessory Repair and Overhaul
for all P&WC engine models
Rotable exchange support and
serviceable parts sales for all
P&WC engine models
Component repairs
CFM56, CF6-50, CF6-80, JT8D
and V2500
Bearing Repair
Component Repair
Accessory Overhaul
Engine Overhaul
Engine component support of
discs, shafts, hubs, seal ring
holders, air seals, bearing
housings, supports, spools,
MGB and AGB housings and
gears, engine accessory
support of fuel, oil and
pnuematice components, i.e.
pumps, actuators, valves,
starters
Turbine Component repairs;
Combustion Liners, Housings,
Compressor Cases, Turbine Hsg.
Honeycomb Exh.
Nozzles/Sleeves,
Exh. Ducts, Nozzles, Stators,
Hot Section Components & more
Major component repair/over-
haul:
Chromium, copper, nickel,
plating, abrasive blasting
specialised cheming cleaning,
chemical removal of coatings
and braze alloys,
chemical stripping HVOF
coatings
Casings and Frames, Rotating Air
Seals, Discs, Drums, Spacers,
OGVs, Bearing Housings
High Pressure Turbine Shrouds
honeycomb Seals
Fuel controls, actuators, fuel
nozzles, augmenters and
fuel manifolds
All P & WC engine series hot
section
engine components
PT6A, PT6T, JT15D, PW300,
PW500
For parts repair only
All platforms, all manufacturers
RR250, PT6A, PT6T, T53
PT6A, PT6T, T53
PT6A, PT6T, T53
CFM56, CF6, CF34, PW4000,
PW2000, V2500, F100. GG4, GG8
LM Series
P&WC PT6, PW100, JT15 series
Hamilton Sundstrand APU series
PWA PW4000, PW2000, JT9 series
PWA JT12/JFTD12
Honeywell TFE731, TPE331,
RR T56/501
GE CF34,
All makes, all models
JT8D, JT9D, PW2000,
PW4000, RB211, Trent 700,
Trent 800, Trent 500, Trent
900,CFM56, CF6, Tay, GE90
LM2500, LM6000, LM5000,
GG4/8 Avon, 501K
CFM56, GE90, CF6, CF34, Tay
RB211, AE3000, AE1000
GE90, CF6, CFM56, F110,
RB211, V2500, CF34,
BR700, TPE331, PT6,
PW4000, PW206, PW207,
PW2000, FJ44, JT8, JT9, CT7,
CT700
Bearing Inspection, Repair & Test
Compressor case & turbine nozzle
Repair & Exchange
Repair, Overhaul & Exchange
Repair, Overhaul, Exchange & Test
CMM, NDT, FPI, MPI, chemical
cleaning, EBW, dabber tig,
heat treat, 6-axis robotic
plasma and thermal spray,
shot peen, grit blast, paint,
CNC turning, milling & grinding,
engine accessory
repair and overhaul
fuel, oil, hydraulic, pneumatic
testing
EBW, Vacuum Furnace Brazing &
Heat Treating, EDM, CNC Mach./
Milling Centers, CMM, 6-Axis
Robotic Plasma/Thermal and
HVOF Coating, Micro Plasma
Arc Welding
Waterjet Machining, NDT and
Repair Development
Engineering
FAA, EASA, ISO 9000, AS9100-C
EBW and Automatic TIG welding;
High Pressure Water Jet;
CNC Milling, Turning, and
Grinding; Plasma and Wire
Arc Coating; Heat Treat,
Thermal Processing, and
Vacuum Rotable Pool Support
CNC Grinding and Turning; Laser
Drilling; Vacuum Brazing and
Heat Treat; EDM; FPI; Several
Coatings including SVPA;
Rotable Pool Support
Heat treating, brazing, welding,
surface coating, advanced
machining, EBW, laser welding,
TIG welding, EDM, plasma
coating, vacuum brazing
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:23 Page 132
133 The Engine Yearbook 2012
1Source Aero Services
Chromalloy - France
Chromalloy - Netherlands
Chromalloy - UK
CRMA
GE Engine Services - Hungary
GE Engine Services - Wales
Goodrich Engine Control
Systems
Honeywell Aerospace
Raunheim
(Engine Accessories)
Honeywell Aerospace
Bournemouth
(Engine Accessories)
P.O. Box 163
32009 Schimatari,
Viotias
Greece
BP 7120
Ave Des Gros Chevaux
Z I du Vert Galant
F-94054
France
Siriusstraat 55
5015 BT Tilburg
Netherlands
1 Linkmel Road
Eastwood, Nottingham
NG16 3RZ
14 Avenue Gay-Lussac
ZA Clef de Saint-Pierre
F-78990 Elancourt
France
Levai utca 33
Veresegyhaz 2112
Hungary
Caerphilly Road,
Nantgarw
Cardiff, South Glamorgan
South Wales,
UK CF15 7YJ
The Radleys
Marston Green
Birmingham
B33 0HZ
UK
Frankfurterstrasse
41-65
Raunheim
D-65479
Germany
Bournemouth
International Airport
Christchurch, Dorset
BH23 6NW
UK
Greg Ferguson
GM
T (30) 226 204 9301
F (30) 226 204 9422
Email:
gregory.ferguson@pw.utc.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Yves Cosaque
Marketing & Sales Development
GM
T (33) 1 3068 3702
F (33) 1 3068 8819
M (33) 6 08 41 40 17
E-mail:
yves.cosaque@crma.fr
Web: www.crma.fr
24/7 AOG Hotline
T +1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
geae.csc@ge.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
T +1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
geae.csc@ge.com
Carole Essex
Marketing Co-ordinator
T (44) 121 788 5179
F (44) 121 779 5712
E-mail:
carole.essex@goodrich.com
ECEPSservices@goodrich.com
Bill Wright
Director, technical sales
Mechanical
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Bill Wright
Director, technical sales
Mechanical
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Most types of engine
accessories, including fuel, oil,
pneumatic, actuators, and
electrical
AL and CR coatings, blades,
vane segments, vane rings,
honeycomb seal repairs,
manufacturing of
honeycomb and felt
Honeycomb seals, shrouds,
frames, cases, supports, fan
discs and spools, NGVs
Small engine component repair,
large engine component and
Honeycomb repair, IGT blade
repair
Combustion chambers, casings,
HPT supports, booster vanes,
turbine centre frame (TCF)
rotating & stationary seals,
spools, QEC & Bare harnesses
sensors, manifolds, VBV
mechanism
Pipe repair & kitting
Liner panels
Honeycomb
Fuel metering controls, fuel
pumping systems, electronics
controls (software and
hardware), afterburner
systems, fuel driven
actuation controls, engine
health monitoring systems,
variable geometry actuation
control, microprocessors,
variable displacement vane
pumps
Engine generators/IDG/CSD
Fuel/oil coolers and heaters
Fuel control units and
components
Environmental control, cabin
pressure control, heat transfer
compressor, starter, oxygen
hydraulics, electronic systems
and equipment
CFM56-3, CFM56-5, CFM56-7,
PW4000
V2500 A1, A5, D5
PW2000
F-100
All PWA, all GE, all CFM
series
CF6-50, CF6-80A, CF6-80C2,
CF6-80E, CF34, LM1600,
LM2500, LM5000,
LM6000, V2500, 131B,
CFM56-2, CFM56-3, CFM56-5A,
CFM56-5B (P), CFM56-5C,
CFM56-7B, PW4000,
A250, BR700
501K, AVON, 501D, Dart,
RB211-22B, RB211-524B/C/D,
RB211-524G/H, RB211-535C,
RB211-535E4, Tay,
Trent 500/700/800, AL5512,
ALF502/LF507, PW100,
PW901
CF6-80C2, CF6-80E1,
CFM56-5A, CFM56-5B,
CFM56-5C, CFM56-7B,
GE90 series, GP7200
military engines
CF6-6/-50/-80A/-80C/-80E
CFM56-2/-3
GE90
RB211
CF34
GE90, GP7000
CFM56-3/-5/-7
EJ200, Argo APU, F404,
F414, CF34-1, CF34-3,
CF6-50/80A, CT2106 APU,
V2500, TFE 1042, LF507,
TF55, LT101, GTCP36-170,
PW305/6, Pegasus, RB211-
524G/H, RB211-535,
Spey, Tay, Trent 700/800,
Trent 500, Viper, AE2100,
AE3007, T406, A250-C40,
C20/R2, C47B, BR710
All Honeywell engines / APUs
JT8, JT9, JT10, JT11, JT15D,
CF6, CT7, CFM56, CF34,
PT6, P108, PW100, PW100,
PW4000,
RB211, RR250,
Spey, Tay, T64, T76,
All Honeywell engines and
APUs
Component and accessory MRO,
FPI, MPI, full accessory test
capability, EB welding, plasma
spray, parts balance
Chemical stripping and plating,
TIG, MIG and EB welding,
laser drilling, pack and vapour
phase deposition, LPPS, HVOF,
EDM, ECG, CNC turning and
milling
High speed grinding, laser drilling,
Tungsten inert gas & EB welding,
EDM, eddy current
Acid strip, blending, CNC milling
and turning, CMM, degreasing,
eddy current inspection, EDM,
electron beam welding, FPI,
grinding, LPW, vacuum brazing,
vibro super polishing
Honeycomb,
laser drilling, cutting and
welding, thermal spray, heat
treatment, brazing, EDM NDT
inspection, CMM and CNC
machining,multi colling holes
drilling, airflow test
Chemical cleaning, anodize and
alodine, CNC shotpeening and
dry blasting, machining, NDT
inspection, CNC unicoat plasma
spraying, CNC resistance spot
welder, vacuum brazing and
heat treatment, TIG and orbital
welding
Engine control systems supplier,
engine control equipment,
tailored support contracts
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
EUROPE
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:24 Page 133
134 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
Jet Technology Centre
LPW Technology
Lufthansa Technik Intercoat
PWA International
Rösler
Summit Aviation
TAMRO
Turbine Component Repair
(TCW)
TRT
TWI
Woodward Aircraft
Engine Systems
Ridgewell House
Hollywood,
Ballyboughal
Co. Dublin
Ireland
PO Box 768
Altrincham
Cheshire
WA15 5EN
UK
Kisdorfer Weg 36-38
D-24568
Kaltenkirchen
Germany
Naas Road
Rathcoole
Co. Dublin
Ireland
Unity Grove
School Lane
Knowsley Business Park
Prescot
L34 9GT
UK
Merlin Way,
Manston,
Kent,
UK
CT12 5FE
Hangar 3, Upwood
Airpark
Ramsey Road
Bury, Cambridge
PE26 2RA
UK
Hangar 2, Upwood
Airpark
Ramsey Road
Bury, Cambridge
PE26 2RA
UK
Bramble Way
Clovernook Industrial
Estate,
Somercotes
Derbyshire
DE55 4RH
UK
Granta Park
Great Abingdon
Cambridge
CB16AL
UK
5 Shawfarm Road
Prestwick
Ayrshire KA9 2TR
UK
Michael O Connell
Sales & Marketing Manager
T (353) 1 8432 221
Mobile 00353 868063262
F (353) 1 8433 849
E-mail:
michael.oconnell@jtc.ie
Web: www.jtc.ie
Phil Carroll
Technical support
T (44) 845 539 0162
F (44) 845 539 0163
E-mail:
phil.carroll@lpwtechnology.com
Sebastian David
Sales manager
T (49) 4191 809 100
F (49) 4191 2826
E-mail:
sales@lht-intercoat.de
Vince Gaffney
International sales manager
T (353) 1 4588100
F (353) 1 4588106
E-mail:
vince.gaffney@pw.utc.com
Tony Pugh
Aerospace Projects Manager
T (44) 151 482 0444
F (44) 151 482 4400
E-mail:
rosleruk@rosler.com
Bruce Erridge
Commercial director
T (44) 1843 822444
F (44) 1843 820900
E-mail:
bruce@summit-aviation.co.uk
David Billington
Director, sales and marketing
T (44) 1487 711650
F (44) 1487 710777
E-mail:
David.Billington@turbinemotor
works.com
Web: www.turbinemotorworks.com
David Billington
Director, sales and marketing
T (44) 1487 711650
F (44) 1487 710777
E-mail:
David.Billington@turbinemotor
works.com
Web: www.turbinemotorworks.com
Andrew Adams
Marketing and contracts manager
T (44) 1773 524400
F (44) 1773 836327
Email: aadams@trt-ltd.com
www.trt-ltd.com
T: (44) 1223 891162
F: (44) 1223 892588
Phil Boyle
Sales Director
T (44) 1292 677 602
F (44) 1292 677 612
E-mail:
pboyle@woodward.com
HMU MECs, FCUs,Main Fuel
Pumps,EVE/EVBC
Lubrication Units,Lube &
Scavenge Pumps fuel, air, oil
and hydraulic
accessories, safety equipment,
slides, vests, rafts,
Specialist laser cladding/
deposition consultancy,
supplier of thermal spray and
welding wire and powder
Fuel pump housings,
hydraulic housings, oil pump
housings, Arkwin actuators,
Boeing and Airbus hydraulic
parts
Case overhaul (all models)
Surface finishing of aero
engine blades and vanes (in
both compressor and turbine
section), vane assemblies
and multi-span components,
supply of machines,
consumables, subcontract
and Keramo process
QEC removal and installation
MRO airframe and engine
accessories, fuel, hydraulic
pneumatic, oil, electrical,
wheel and brake, safety,
airframe structural wide and
narrow body airframes and
respective engine types
Compressor and turbine
airfoils, frames and cases,
air seals and other rotating
parts and Combustors
HP, IP, LP blades,
HP, IP, LP nozzle guide vanes,
nozzle guide vane, assemblies
Engineering solutions incl
welding, joining and
associated technologies,
technology transfer
consultancy and project support.
Contract R&D, training and
qualification
Repair and overhaul,
fuel control,
propellor governer unit test
stands
JT3D, JT8D, JT9D,
CFM56, CF6-50, CF6-80,
707/727/737/747/757/767
DC8/9/10 MD80, MD11
A300/310/320/330/340
All engine types
JT8-D, JT9-D, CFM56-3, -5, -7
CF6-50, CF6-80, RB211,
Trent 500
V2500, PW2000, PW4000
Boeing and Airbus
components
PW2000, PW4000,
V2500
All engine types,
airframe,
landing gear
components and
cabin hardware
Pratt and Whitney JT8D (STD) /
217 / 219
Pratt and Whitney JT3D (All
Series)
CF6-50/80, CFM56, JT9D, JT8D,
JT3D
ALF502, ALF507
CF6-50/80, JT9D, JT3D
T500 - T700 - T800
RB211-524-535 (All varients)
All engine types
CFM56-2/-3, CFM56-5, CF34-3,
CF6-6/-50, RB211-535E4,
V2500
CF34 -8, -10
PT6, PW100, CT7,
Allison 250,
TPE331, V2500
Overhaul, repair, test,
Part Sales
Exchange Rotables
Application and process
development, process
optimisation, enclosure and
fixture design, supply of
specialist laser, cladding gas
and plasma, atomised
powders, powder handling
and process
Interfill, FPI, CMC measuring,
CNC machining
NDT, EBW, TIG, CNC machining,
plasma, HVOF, grinding,
vacuum furnace, EDM, shot
peen, press test, R&D cell
Vibratory polishing and
Keramo finishing to
<10 microinches
(<0.25 micrometres) Ra,
shot peening and shot blasting
Complete overhaul, repair and
test
Complete overhaul, repair
and testing components
Airframe types:
747, 777, 767, 757,
737NG, 737, 717, 707
MD-11, DC-10, MD-80, DC-9
RJ85, RJ100, BAE146
A340, A330, A321, A320,
A319, A300
TIG and lazer welding
vacuum furnace brazing,
heat treatment
NDT, FPI, X-Ray, EDM
CNC machining, precision
grinding
Arc, gas and resisitance welding,
plasma spray, cold spray,
vacuum furnace braze, laser
cladding and deposition,
NDT, liquid penetrant, MPI,
eddy current and ultrasonic
inspections, EBW, laser welding
and cutting
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:24 Page 134
135 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Chromalloy
GE Aviation, Service - ATI
Ge Celma
GE Celma
GE Engine Services Malaysia
Honeywell Aerospace
Singapore
(Engine accessories)
Honeywell Aerospace -
Xiamen
(APU and Propulsion)
Honeywell Aerospace -
Melbourne
(Engine accessories)
Windsor Airmotive Asia
Barnes Aerospace Aftermarket
25 Moo 5 Bungkhampoi
Lamlukka, Pathumthani
Thailand 12150
62 Loyang Way
Singapore 508770
23 Loyang
Singapore 508726
Rua Alice Herve, 356
Bingen
Petropolis RJ, CEP:
25669-900
Brazil
MAS Complex A-AA1802
SAAS Airport
47200 Subang Selangor
D.E.
Malaysia
17 Changi Business
Park
Central 1
Singapore 486073
Singapore
Xiamen Gaoqi Int'l
Airport
Xiamen
Fujian
361006
China
34 Fraser Street,
Airport
West Victoria,
Melbourne, 3042
Australia
21 Loyang Lane
508921
Singapore
Tom van der Linden
VP, Sales
P +31 13 5328 423
F
E-mail:
tvanderlinden@chromalloy.com
contact: cathy_gedvilas@sequa.com
Jimmy Tan
MD
T (65) 543 7818
F (65) 543 7839
E-mail:
jtan@airfoiltech.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
T +1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
T +1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
24/7 AOG Hotline
T +1-513-552-3272
Toll Free in USA: 1-877-432-3272
Email:
deborah.case@ge.com
Paul David
Director, technical sales
Mechanical
T 480 592 4089
E-mail:
paul.david@honeywell.com
Bill Wright
Technical sales
APU/propulsion
T 480 592 4182
E-mail:
bill.wright@honeywell.com
Paul David
Director technical sales
Mechanical
T 480 592 4089
E-mail:
paul.david@honeywell.com
Sebastian Lim
Sales Manager, Asia
T (65) 6541 9222
F (65) 6542 9364
Gas turbine engine parts
HPC blades and vanes,
fan blades, HPC cases
Combustors, HPT blades & nozzles,
LPT blades & nozzles
Engine generators/IDG/CSD
Fuel/oil coolers and heaters,
fuel control units and
components, all engine
related accessories
Technical expertise in APUs
APU accessories, engine
starters, heat exchangers
Air turbine starters
bleed air and pneumatic
valves, cooling turbines,
electro-mechanical actuators
Casings and Frames,
Honeycomb Seals,
TOBI Ducts, OGVs,
Rotating Air Seals, Disks
CFM56-2B/-2C, CFM56-3,
CFM56-5A/5B/5C, CFM56-7B,
CF6-50, CF6-80A,
CF6-80C2, CF6-80E1, LM2500,
LM5000,
LM6000, PW4000 94/100"
CF6, CFM56, GE90, CF34, LM,
Honeywell
CF6-6/-50/-80A/-80C/-80E
GE90
CF34
CFM56-2/-3/-5/-7
LM2500/5000/6000
RB211-535C
CF6-50, CF6-80C2
CFM56-3/-7
CFM56-3/-5B
All Honeywell engines / APUs
CT7, CF6, CF34, CFM56,
JT8, JT9, JT10, JT11, JT15D,
PT6, P108, PW100,
PW4000,
RB211, RR250, Spey, Tay
APU GTCP 85 series
APU 85, 331-200/250 series
JT8D, JT9D, PW4000,
Trent 700, Trent 800,
Trent 500, Trent 900
RB211, CFM56
Blending, chemical plating, CMM,
ECG, EDM, furnace brazing,
gas tungsten arc welding, grinding,
heat treating, instruction brazing,
metallurgical analysis, steel shot
peening, vacuum brazing, welding
HPC airfoils repair, service
management, new make manu-
facturing, automatic chemical
stripping line, micro plasma
automated welding, coining and
stamping, net shape machining
and grinding (2D & 3D airfoil),
RD305 leading edge inspection
& leading edge re-profiling
Rejuvenation/enhanced
rejuvenation,
nozzle fabrication repair, shank
coating strip, Al Green coating,
EB weld repair, laser cladding,
NDT - FPI, radioscopic inspection,
current, airflow testing, special
processes, machine shop
EBW and Auto TIG Welding;
High Pressure Water Jet;
CNC Milling, Turning,
Grinding; Plasma and Wire
Arc Coating; Heat Treat,
Thermal processing and
Vacuum Brazing; X-ray, FPI, Eddy
Current and Ultrasonic testing;
EDM; Several Coatings
including SVPA;
Rotable Pool Support
Specialist engine repairs directory — worldwide (cont...)
Company name Address Contact Component capabilites Engine type Specialist skills
REST OF WORLD
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 12:26 Page 135
136 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Directory of major commercial aircraft turboprops
*
Manufacturer Designation Max Max Dry Length Comp Turb Aircraft
Mech SHP Shaft RPM Weight (lb) (in) stages stages applications
General T64-P4D 3400 1188 110 14 axial 2H, 2L C-27A Spartan
Electric CT7-5A2 1735 783 96 6 axial 2H, 2L Saab 340
CT7-7A 1700 783 96 6 axial 2H, 2L CN235
CT7-9B/C 1870 805 96 6 axial 2H, 2L Saab 340, CN 235
CT7-9D 1940 805 96 6 axial 2H, 2L
CT64-820-4 3133 1145 110 14 axial 2H, 2L
Honeywell LPT101-700A-1A 700 335 37 1 axial, I cent Piaggio P.166-DL3
T35-L-701 1400 693 59 5 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L OV-1 Mohawk
T76-G-400 341 44 OV-10 Bronco
TPE331-5/-5A/-6 840 360 2 cent 3 Ayres S2R-G6, Dornier 228, Mu-2, Beech King Air B100
TPE331-8 715 370 2 cent 3 Cessna Conquest
TPE-10/-10R/-10U 1000 385 46 2 cent 3 Ayres S2R-G10, Jetstream 31, Merlin III, Commander 690
TPE331-11U 1000 405 46 2 cent 3 Merlin 23, Metro 23
TPE331-12U/-12JR 1100 407 46 2 cent 3 C-212-400, Metro 23, Jetstream Super 31
TPE331-14A/B 1645 620 53 2 cent 3 PA-42-100 Cheyenne
TPE331-14GR/HR 1960 620 53 2 cent 3 Ayres Vigilante, Jetstream 41
TPE331-25/61 575 335 2 cent 3 MU-2B
Pratt & Whitney PT6A-11 550 2200 328 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Piper Cheyenne 1A, Piper T1040
Canada PT6A-11AG 550 2200 330 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Air tractor AT 402A/B, Schweizer G-164B AG-Cat Turbine
PT6A-15AG 680 2200 328 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Air tractor AT 402A/B, AT 502B, Ayres Turbo Thrush T-15,
Frakes Turbo Cat Model A/B/C, Schweizer G-164B AG-Cat Turb.
PT6A-21 550 2200 328 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Raytheon Beech King Air C90A/B/SE
PT6A-25 550 2200 353 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Raytheon Beech T-34C
PT6A-25A 550 2200 343 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L FTS Turbo Firecracker, Pilatus Turbo Trainer PC-7, PZL-
Okecie PZL-130 TE Turbo-Orlik, Raytheon Beech T-44A
PT6A-25C 750 2200 346 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Embraer EMB-312 Tucano, Pilatus Turbo Trainer PC-7 MK II
PT6A-27 680 2200 328 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L CATIC/HAIG Y-12, deHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter Series
300, Embraer Bandeirante EMB-110, LET L410, Raytheon
Beech 99A, Ratheon Beech B99
PT6A-28 680 2200 328 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Piper Cheyenne II, Raytheon Beech 99A, Raytheon Beech
King Air A100/E90
PT6A-34/34AG 750 2200 331 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Air Tractor AT 502B, Ayres Turbo Thrush T-34, CROPLEASE
Fieldmaster, Embraer Bandierante EMB-110/-111,
Embraer Caraja, Frakes Mallard, Frakes Turbo Cat Model
A/B/C, JetPROP DLX, Pacific Aero Cresco 750, PZL-Okecie
PZL-106 Turbo-Kruk, Schweizer G-164B AG-Cat Turbine,
Schweizer G-164D AG-Cat Turbine, Vazar Dash 3 Turbine Otter
PT6A-36 750 2200 331 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Raytheon Beech C99 Airliner
PT6A-112 500 1900 326 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Cessna Conquest I, Reims F406 Caravan II
PT6A-114 600 1900 345 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Cessna 208/208B Caravan 1
PT6A-114A 675 1900 350 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Cessna 208/208B Caravan 1
PT6A-121 615 1900 326 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L PIAGGIO P-166-DL3
PT6A-135A 750 1900 338 62 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Cessna Conquest I, Embraer EMB-121 XINGU II, Piper
Cheyenne IIXL, Raytheon Beech King Air E90-1, Vazar
Dash 3 Turbine Otter
PT6A-42 850 2000 403 67 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Raytheon Beech C12F, Raytheon Beech King Air B200
PT6A-42A 850 2000 403 67 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Piper Malibu Meridian
PT6A-50 1120 1210 607 84 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L deHavilland DHC-7 Dash 8
PT6A-60A 1050 1700 475 72 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Raytheon Super Beech King Air 300/350
PT6A-60AG 1050 1700 475 72 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Air Tractor AT 602, Ayres Model 660
PT6A-61 850 2000 429 68 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Piper Cheyenne IIIA
PT6A-62 950 2000 456 71 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Pilatus Turbo Trainer PC-9
PT6A-64 700 2000 465 70 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Socata TBM700
PT6A-65AG 1300 1700 486 75 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Air Tractor AT 602, AT 802/802A/802AF/802F, Ayres Turbo
Thrush T-65, CROPLEASE Fieldmaster, CROPLEASE
Firemaster
PT6A-65AR 1424 1700 486 75 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L AMI DC-3, Shorts C-23B Super Sherpa
PT6A-65B 1100 1700 481 75 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Polish Aviation Factory M28 Skytruck,
Raytheon Beech 1900/1900C
PT6-65R 1376 1700 481 75 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Shorts 360/360-300
PT6A-66 850 2000 456 70 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L PIAGGIO Avanti P-180
PT6A-66A 850 2000 450 70 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Ibis Aerospace Ae 270 HP
PT6A-67 1200 1700 506 74 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Pilatus Turbo Porter PC-6, Raytheon Beech RC-12K
PT6A-67A 1200 1700 506 74 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Raytheon Beech Starship
PT6A-67AF 1424 1700 520 76 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Conair Aviation - S2 Turbo-Firecat
PT6A-67AG 1350 1700 520 76 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Air Tractor AT 802/802A/802AF/802F
PT6A-67B 1200 1700 515 76 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Pilatus PC-12
PT6A-67D 1271 1700 515 74 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Raytheon Beech 1900D
PT6A-67R 1424 1700 515 76 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Basler Turbo BT-67, Greenwich Aircraft DC-3,
Shorts 360/360-300
PT6A-68 1250 2000 572 72 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Raytheon T-6A Texan II
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 136
137 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Directory of major commercial aircraft turboprops (cont...)
Manufacturer Designation Max Max Dry Length Comp Turb Aircraft
Mech SHP Shaft RPM Weight (lb) (in) stages stages applications
PT6A-68B/68C 1600 2000 572 72 4 axial, 1 cent 1H, 2L Pilatus PC-21
PW118 1800 1300 861 81 2 cent 1H, 1L Embraer EMB120
PW118A 1800 1300 866 81 2 cent 1H, 1L Embraer EMB120
PW118B 1800 1300 866 81 2 cent 1H, 1L Embraer EMB120
PW119B 2180 1300 916 81 2 cent 1H, 1L Fairchild Dornier 328-110/120
PW119C 2180 1300 916 81 2 cent 1H, 1L Fairchild Dornier 328-110/120
PW120 2000 1200 921 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR42-300/320
PW120A 2000 1200 933 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR42-400/500,
Bombardier Aerospace Q100
PW121 2150 1200 936 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR42-300/320,
Bombardier Aerospace Q100
PW121A 2200 1200 957 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR42-400/500
PW123 2380 1200 992 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Bombardier Aerospace Q300
PW123AF 2380 1200 992 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Canadair CL-215T/CL-415
PW123B 2500 1200 992 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Bombardier Aerospace Q300
PW123C 2150 1200 992 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Bombardier Aerospace Q200
PW123D 2150 1200 992 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Bombardier Aerospace Q200
PW123E 2380 1200 992 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Bombardier Aerospace Q300
PW124B 2500 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR 72-200
PW125B 2500 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Fokker 50/High Performance
PW126A 2662 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Jetstream Aircraft ATP
PW127 2750 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR 72-210/500
PW127B 2750 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Fokker 50/High Performance, Fokker 60 Utility
PW127C 2750 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L XIAN Y7-200A, Ilyushin Il-114, Socata HALE
PW127E 2400 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR42-400/500
PW127F 2750 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Aerospatiale/Alenia ATR 72-210A
PW127G 2920 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L CASA C295
PW127H 2750 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L Ilyushin IL-114-100
PW127J 2880 1200 1060 84 2 cent 1H, 1L XIAN Aircraft Co. MA-60
PW150A 5071 1020 1521 95 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L Bombardier Aerospace Q400
PW150B 5071 1020 1521 95 3 axial, 1 cent 1H, 1L AVIC II Y8F600
Rolls-Royce Dart RDa7 Mk536 2280 1257 98 2 cent 3 Fokker F-27
Dart RDa7 Mk529 2250 1257 98 2cent 3 Gulfsteam 1
Dart RDa10 Mk542 3060 1397 99 2 cent 3 Convair 660, YS 11
Dart Mk552 2465 1303 98 2 cent 3 Super HS 748-2B, F27
Tyne Rty 20 Mk 515 5730 2275 109 6L, 9H 1H, 3L CL44
Tyne Rty 20 Mk 21/22 6,100 2394 115 6L, 9H 1H, 3L Transall C.160
Tyne Rty 20 Mk 801 4860 6L, 9H 1H, 3L
Rolls-Royce USA 250-B17 420 50,970 195 45 6 axial, 1 cent Nomad
(Allison) 250-B17B, B17C/D 420 50970 198 45 6 axial, 1 cent Nomad, Turbine Islander, Turbostar, Viator, Fuji T-5,
SF260TP, AS 202/32TP, Redi Go, Siai Marchetti, Turbo Pillan
250-B17F, B17F/1, B17F/2 450 50970 205 45 6 axial, 1 cent Beech 36, Cessna P210, Nomad, Canguro, Redi Go,
SF260TP, Ruschmeyer 90-420AT, Turbine Trilander,
Defender 4000, Fuji T7, Grob G140, Beechcraft A36
AE2100A 4152 15,375 1578 116 14 axial 2H, 2L Saab 2000
AE2100C 3600 15375 1578 116 14 axial 2H, 2L N-250-100
AE2100D 4591 14268 1655 116 14 axial 2H, 2L LMATTS C-27J, Lockheed C-130J, Lockheed L-100F
AE2100J 4591 14268 1655 116 14 axial 2H, 2L ShinMaywa
501-D22 4050 13820 1835 146 14 axial 2H, 2L L-100
501-D22A/C/G 4910 13820 1890 147 14 axial 2H, 2L Convair 580A, L100-20/-30
(*data correct up to 2009)
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 137
The Engine Yearbook 2012 138
CFM CFM56-2-C1 22,000 86 6 95.7 68.3 4,635 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L DC-8-71, -72, -73
CFM56-2A-2/3 24,000 90/95 5.9 95.7 68.3 4,820 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L E-3, E6, E-8B
KE-3
CFM56-2B-1 22,000 90 6 95.7 68.3 4,671 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L KC-135R
C-135FR
CFM56-3-B1 20,000 86 5 93 60 4,276 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-300, -500
CFM56-3B-2 22,000 86 4.9 93 60 4,301 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-300, -400
CFM56-3C-1 23,500 86 5 93 60 4,301 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-300, -400, -500
CFM56-5-A1 25,000 86 6 95.4 68.3 4,995 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L A320
CFM56-5A3 26,500 86 6 95.4 68.3 4,995 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L A320
CFM56-5A4 22,000 86 6 95.4 68.3 4,995 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L A319
CFM56-5A5 23,500 86 6 95.4 68.3 4,995 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L A319
CFM56-5B1 30,000 86 5.5 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A321
CFM56-5B2 31,000 86 5.5 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A321
CFM56-5B3 33,000 86 5.4 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A321
CFM56-5B4 27,000 86 5.7 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A320
CFM56-5B5 22,000 86 6 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A319
CFM56-5B6 23,500 86 5.9 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A319
CFM56-5B7 27,000 86 5.9 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A319, A319CJ
CFM56-5B8 21,600 86 6 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A318
CFM56-5B9 23,300 113 6 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A318
CFM56-5C2 31,200 86 6.6 103 72.3 8,740 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 5L A340-200, -300
CFM56-5C3 32,500 86 6.5 103 72.3 8,740 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 5L A340-200, -300
CFM56-5C4 34,000 86 6.4 103 72.3 8,740 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 5L A340
CFM56-5B1/3 30,000 86 5.5 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A321
CFM56-5B2/3 31,000 86 5.5 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A321
CFM56-5B3/3 33,000 86 5.4 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A321
CFM56-5B4/3 27,000 86 5.7 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A320
CFM56-5B5/3 22,000 86 6.0 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A319
CFM56-5B6/3 23,500 86 5.9 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A319
Manufacturer Designation Takeoff Flat rate Bypass Length Fan tip Basic Comp Turb Aircraft
thrust (lb) temp (
o
F) ratio (in) dia (in) weight(lb) stages stages applications
Directory of major commercial aircraft turbofans
*
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 138
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140 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Manufacturer Designation Takeoff Flat rate Bypass Length Fan tip Basic Comp Turb Aircraft
thrust (lb) temp (
o
F) ratio (in) dia (in) weight(lb) stages stages applications
Directory of major commercial aircraft turbofans (cont...)
CF6-80C2-B5F 60,800 77 5.14 168.3 93 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B767-300ER
CF6-80C2-B6 60,800 86 5.06 168.3 93 9,670 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B767-300ER
CF6-80C2-B8F 60,800 86 5.06 168.3 93 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B767-300ER
CF6-80C2-D1F 51,250 86 5.03 168.3 93 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L C-5M
CF6-80E1-A2 65,800 86 5.1 173.5 96.2 11,225 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A330
CF6-80E1-A3 69,800 86 5.1 173.5 96.2 10,627 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A330-200
CF6-80E1-A4 68,100 86 5 168.4 96.2 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A330-200
GE90-76B 76,000 86 8.7 287 123 16,644 1F + 3L, 10H 2H, 6L B777-200
GE90-77B 77,000 86 8.7 287 123 16,644 1F + 3L, 10H 2H, 6L B777-200
GE90-85B 84,700 86 8.7 287 123 16,644 1F + 3L, 10H 2H, 6L B777-200
GE90-90B 90,000 86 8.7 287 123 16,644 1F + 3L, 10H 2H, 6L B777-200/-200ER/-300
GE90-94B 93,700 86 8.7 287 123 16,644 1F + 3L, 10H 2H, 6L B777-200ER/-300
GE90-110B1 110,100 92 7.2 287 128.2 18,260 1F + 3L, 9H 2H, 6L B777-200LR
GE90-115B 115,300 86 7.2 287 128.2 18,260 1F + 3L, 9H 2H, 6L B777-300ER
GEnx-1B54 53,200 86 9 184.7 111.1 18,822 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 7L B787-3
GEnx-1B64 63,800 86 8.8 184.7 111.1 18,822 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 7L B787-8
GEnx-2B67 66,500 86 7.4 169.7 104.2 18,822 1F + 3L, 10H 2H, 7L B747-8
GEnx-1B70 69,800 86 8.6 184.7 111.1 18,822 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 7L B787-9
GE-P&W Alliance GP7270 70,000 86 8.7 187 116 12,906 1F + 5L, 9H 2H, 6L A380
GP7277 77,000 86 8.7 187 116 12,906 1F + 5L, 9H 2H, 6L A380
Honeywell AS907 6,500 85 4.2 92.4 46.3 1364 1F + 4L, 1CF 2H, 3L Continental Jet
AS977-1A 7,092 85 4.2 92.4 49.9 1,364 1F + 4L, 1CF 2H, 3L Avro RJX and BAe 146
ALF502L 7,500 59 5 56.8 41.7 1,311 1F + 1L,7H + 1CF 2H, 2L Canadair 600 Challenger
ALF502R-3A/5 6,970 71 5.6 58.6 41.7 1,336 1F + 1L, 7H + 1CF 2H, 2L BAe 146
ALF502R-6 7,500 71 5.6 58.6 41.7 1,375 1F + 1L, 7H + 1CF 2H, 2L BAe 146
LF507-1F 7,000 74 5 58.6 41.7 1,385 1F + 2L,7H + 1CF 2H, 2L Avro RJ
LF507-1H 7,000 74 5 58.6 41.7 1,385 1F + 2L,7H + 1CF 2H, 2L BAe 146
TFE731-2 3,500 72 2.5 49.7 28.2 743 1F + 4L,1H 1H, 3L Dassault Falcon 10
CASA C101
Learjet 31/35
AT-3, IA-63
TFE731-2A/B/J/L/N 3,600 73.4 2.56 49.7 28.2 750 1F + 4L, 1CF 1H, 3L K-8
TFE731-3 3,700 76 2.67 49.7 28.2 742 1F + 4L, 1CF 1H, 3L 731 Jetstar, Jetstar II
CASA 101
Dassault Falcon 50
Hawker 400/700
Westwind
Sabreliner 65
TFE731-3A 3,700 76 2.66 49.7 28.2 766 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Learjet 55
Astra
TFE731-3B 3,650 70 2.65 49.7 28.2 760 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Citation III, VI
TFE731-3C 3,650 70 2.65 49.7 28.2 777 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Citation III, VI
TFE731-4 4,060 76 2.4 58.15 28.2 822 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Citation V11
TFE731-5 4,304 73.4 3.33 54.7 29.7 852 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Hawker 800
CASA C101
TFE731-5A 4,500 73.4 3.15 67.8 29.7 884 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Dassault Falcon 900
Dassault Falcon 20-5
TFE731-5B 4,750 77 3.2 67.8 29.7 899 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Dassault Falcon 900B
Dassault Falcon 20-5
Hawker 800XP
TFE731-20 3,500 93 3.1 59.65 34.2 895 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Learjet 45
TFE731-40 4,250 77 2.9 51 28.2 895 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Falcon 50EX
Astra SPX
TFE731-60 5,000 89.6 3.9 72 30.7 988 1F + 4L, 1H 1H, 3L Falcon 900EX
IAE V2500-A1 25,000 86 5.4 126 63 5,210 1F + 3L, 10H 2H, 5L A320, ACJ
V2522-A5 23,000 131 4.9 126 63.5 5,210 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 5L A319
V2524-A5 24,500 131 4.9 126 63.5 5,210 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 5L A319
V2525-D5 25,600 86 4.9 126 63.5 5,610 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 5L MD-90
V2527-A5 26,600 115 4.8 126 63.5 5,210 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 5L A320
V2528-D5 28,600 86 4.7 126 63.5 5,610 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 5L MD-90
V2530-A5 30,400 86 4.6 126 63.5 5,210 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 5L A321-100
V2533-A5 32,000 86 4.5 126 63.5 5,210 1F + 4L, 10H 2H, 5L A321-200
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 140
141 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Manufacturer Designation Takeoff Flat rate Bypass Length Fan tip Basic Comp Turb Aircraft
thrust (lb) temp (
o
F) ratio (in) dia (in) weight(lb) stages stages applications
Directory of major commercial aircraft turbofans (cont...)
CFM56-5B7/3 27,000 86 5.9 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A319, A319CJ
CFM56-5B8/3 21,600 86 6.0 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A318
CFM56-5B9/3 23,300 113 6.0 102.4 68.3 5,250 1F + 4L, 9H 1H, 4L A318
CFM56-7B18 19,500 86 5.5 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-600
CFM56-7B20 20,600 86 5.4 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-600, -700
CFM56-7B22 22,700 86 5.3 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-600, -700
CFM56-7B24 24,200 86 5.3 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-700, -800, -900
CFM56-7B26 26,300 86 5.1 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-800, -900
CFM56-7B27 27,300 86 5.1 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-800, -900
CFM56-7B20/3 20,600 86 5.4 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-600, -700
CFM56-7B22/3 22,700 86 5.3 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-600, -700
CFM56-7B24/3 24,200 86 5.3 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-700, -800, -900
CFM56-7B26/3 26,300 86 5.1 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-800, -900
CFM56-7B27/3 27,300 86 5.1 103.5 61 5,257 1F + 3L, 9H 1H, 4L B737-800, -900
General Electric CJ610-5-6 2,950 59 40.5 17.6 403 8 2 Learjet 24D, 25B, 25C,
Westwind 1121
CJ610-8-9 3,100 59 40.5 17.6 411 8 2 Westwind 1123
CJ610-8A 2,950 59 40.5 17.6 411 8 2 Learjet Century III
CF700-2D2 4,500 59 75.6 33.1 767 8 2 Falcon 20, Rockwell Sabre 75A
CF34-1A 8,650 59 6.2 103 49 1,625 1F, 14H 2H, 4L Challenger 601
CF34-3A 9,220 70 6.2 103 49 1,625 1F, 14H 2H, 4L Challenger 601
CF34-3A1 9,220 70 6.2 103 49 1,625 1F, 14H 2H, 4L Challenger 601
Canadair Regional Jet
CF34-3B 9,220 86 6.2 103 49 1,670 1F, 14H 2H, 4L Challenger 604
CF34-3B1 9,220 86 6.2 103 49 1,670 1F, 14H 2H, 4L Canadair Regional Jet
CF34-8C1 13,790 86 4.9 128.5 52 2,350 1F, 10H 2H, 4L Canadair CRJ-700
CF34-8C5 14,500 86 4.9 128.5 52 2,470 1F, 10H 2H, 4L Canadair CRJ-900
CF34-8E 14,500 86 4.9 128.5 52 2,470 1F, 10H 2H, 4L Embraer ERJ-170/175
CF34-10A 18,050 86 5 90 53 3,800 3L,9H 1H, 4L ACAC ARJ21
CF34-10E 18,500 86 5 90 53 3,800 3L, 9H 1H, 4L ERJ-190/195
CF6-6D 40,000 88 5.72 188 86.4 8,176 1F + 1L, 16H 2H, 5L DC-10-10
CF6-6D1A 41,500 84 5.76 188 86.4 8,966 1F + 1L, 16H 2H, 5L DC-10-10
CF6-45A2 46,500 97 4.64 183 86.4 8,768 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L B747-100B SR
B747SP
CF6-50C 51,000 86 4.26 183 86.4 8,966 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L DC-10-30
A300-B2,-B4
CF6-50E 52,500 78 4.24 183 86.4 9,047 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L B747-200
CF6-50C1 52,500 86 4.24 183 86.4 8,966 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L DC-10-30
A300-B2, -B4
CF6-50E1 52,500 86 4.24 183 86.4 9,047 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L B747-200
CF6-50C2 52,500 86 4.31 183 86.4 8,966 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L DC-10-30
A300-B2, -B4
CF6-50C2R 51,500 86 4.31 183 86.4 8,966 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L DC-10-30
CF6-50E2 52,500 86 4.31 183 86.4 9,047 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L B747-200
CF6-50C2B 54,000 79 4.25 183 86.4 8,966 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L DC-10-30
CF6-50C2R 51,000 79 4.25 183 86.4 8,966 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L DC-10-30
CF6-50E2B 54,000 86 4.24 183 86.4 9,047 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L B747-200
CF6-80A 48,000 92 4.66 166.9 86.4 8,760 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L B767-200
CF6-80A1 48,000 92 4.66 166.9 86.4 8,760 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L A310-200
CF6-80A2 50,000 92 4.59 166.9 86.4 8,760 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L B767
CF6-80A3 50,000 92 4.59 166.9 86.4 8,760 1F + 3L, 14H 2H, 4L A310-200
CF6-80C2-A1 59,000 86 5.15 168.4 93 9,480 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A300-600
CF6-80C2-A2 53,500 111 5.31 168.2 93 9,480 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A310-200/ -300
CF6-80C2-A3 60,200 86 5.09 168.3 93 9,480 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A300-600
A310-300
CF6-80C2-A5 61,300 86 5.05 168.3 93 9,480 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A300-600
CF6-80C2-A5F 61,300 86 5.05 168.3 93 9,860 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A300-600
CF6-80C2-A8 59,000 95 5.09 168.3 93 9,480 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L A310-300
CF6-80C2-B1 56,700 86 5.19 168.3 93 9,670 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B747-200, -300
CF6-80C2-B1F 58,000 90 5.19 168.3 93 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L 747-400
CF6-80C2-B2 52,500 90 5.31 168.3 93 9,670 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B767-200/-ER/-300
CF6-80C2-B2F 52,700 86 5.31 168.3 93 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B767-300ER
CF6-80C2-B4 58,100 90 5.14 168.3 93 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B767-200ER/-300ER
CF6-80C2-B4F 58,100 77 5.14 168.3 93 9,790 1F + 4L, 14H 2H, 5L B767-300ER
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 141
142 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Manufacturer Designation Takeoff Flat rate Bypass Length Fan tip Basic Comp Turb Aircraft
thrust (lb) temp (
o
F) ratio (in) dia (in) weight(lb) stages stages applications
Directory of major commercial aircraft turbofans (cont...)
A310-200,-300
JT9D-7R4E4, E3 50,000 86 4.8 153.6 97 9,140 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B767-200ER,-300
A310-200, -300
JT9D-7R4H1 56,000 86 4.8 153.6 97 8,885 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L A300-600
PW2037 38,250 87 6 141.4 78.5 7,300 1F + 4L, 12H 2H, 5L B757-200
PW2040 41,700 87 6 141.4 78.5 7,300 1F + 4L, 12H 2H, 5L B757-200, -200F
PW2043 43,000 87 6 141.4 78.5 7,300 1F + 4L, 12H 2H, 5L B757-200, -300
PW4050 50,000 92 5 153.6 97 9,213 1F + 4L, 12H 2H, 5L B767-200, -200ER
PW4052 52,200 92 5 132.7 94 9,213 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B767-200, -200ER, -300
PW4056 56,000 92 4.9 132.7 94 9,213 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B767-200, -200ER, -300
PW4056 56,750 92 4.9 132.7 94 9,213 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-400
PW4060 60,000 92 4.8 132.7 94 9,332 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B767-300, -300ER
PW4062 62,000 86 4.8 132.7 94 9,400 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B767-300
PW4062 62,000 86 4.8 132.7 94 9,400 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-400
PW4074 74,000 86 6.4 191.7 112 14,995 1F + 6L, 11H 2H, 7L B777-200
PW4077 78,040 86 6.4 191.7 112 14,995 1F + 6L, 11H 2H, 7L B777-200
PW4084 84,600 86 6.4 191.7 112 14,995 1F + 6L, 11H 2H, 7L B777-200
PW4090 91,790 86 6.4 191.6 112 15,741 1F + 6L, 11H 2H, 7L B777-200, -300
PW4098 98,000 86 6.4 194.7 112 16,170 1F + 7L, 11H 2H, 7L B777-300
PW4152 52,000 108 5 132.7 94 9,332 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L A310-300
PW4156 56,000 92 4.9 132.7 94 9,332 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L A300-600, A310-300
PW4158 58,000 86 4.8 132.7 94 9,332 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L A300-600, -600R
PW4164 64,000 86 5.1 163.1 100 11,700 1F + 5L, 11H 2H, 5L A330
PW4168 68,000 86 5.1 163.1 100 11,700 1F + 5L, 11H 2H, 5L A330
PW4460 60,000 86 4.8 132.7 94 9,332 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L MD-11
PW4462 62,000 86 4.8 132.7 94 9,400 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L MD-11
PW6122A 22,100 86 4.8 108 56.6 4,840 1F + 4L, 5H 1H, 3L A318
PW6124A 23,800 86 5 108 56.6 4,840 1F + 4L, 5H 1H, 3L A318
P & W Canada JT15D-1, -1A, -1B 2,200 59 3.3 56.6 27.3 514/519 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Cessna Citation 1
JT15D-4 2,500 59 2.6 60.4 20.8 557 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L A»rospatiale Corvette
Cessna Citation II
Mitsubishi Diamond 1
JT15D-4C 2,500 59 2.6 60.4 20.8 575 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Agusta S211
JT15D-5 2,900 80 2 60.4 20.5 632 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Beechjet 400A
Cessna T-47A
JT15D-5A 2,900 80 2 60.4 27 632 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Cessna Citation V
JT15D-5B 2,900 80 2 60.4 27 643 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Beech T-1A Jayhawk
JT15D-5C 3,190 59 2 60.4 27 665 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Agusta S211A
JT15D-5D 3,045 80 2 60.6 27 627 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Cessna Citation V Ultra
JT15D-5F 2,900 80 2 60.4 27 635 1F + 1CF 1H, 2L Raytheon Beech
PW305A 4,679 93 4.3 81.5 30.7 993 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Learjet Model 60
PW305B 5,266 74.3 4.3 81.5 30.7 993 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Raytheon Hawker 1000
PW306A 6,040 89 4.5 75.6 31.7 1,043 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Gulfstream G-200
PW306B 6,050 95 4.5 75.6 31.7 1,062 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Fairchild 328JET
PW306C 5,770 91.4 4.3 75.726 31.7 1,150 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Cessna Citation Sovereign
PW307A 6,405 92.1 4.31 86.02 32.7 1,242 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Falcon 7X
PW308A 6,904 98.6 4 84.2 33.2 1,365 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Raytheon Hawker Horizon
PW308C 7,002 100.4 4 84.2 33.2 1,375 1F, 4H + 1CF 2H, 3L Dassault Falcon 2000EX
PW530A 2,887 73 3.2 60 27.6 616 1F, 2H + 1CF 1H, 2L Cessna Citation Bravo
PW535A 3,400 81 3.7 64.8 29 697 1F + 1L, 2H + 1CF 1H, 3L Cessna Encore Ultra
PW545A 3,804 83 4 75.7 32 815 1F + 1L, 2H + 1CF 1H, 3L Cessna Citation Excel
PW610F-A 950 97 1.83 45.4 14.5 259.3 1F, 1H + 1C 1H, 1L Eclipse Aviation E500
PW615F-A 1,390 77 2.8 49.5 16.03 310 1F, 1H + 1C 1H, 1L Citation Mustang
PW617F-E 1,780 68 2.7 52.6 17.7 366 1F, 1H + 1C 1H, 1L Embraer Phenom 100
PW800 10,000 to 20,000 TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA TBA
Rolls-Royce AE3007A 7,580 86 5.3 106.5 38.5 1,608 1L , 14H 2H, 3L Embraer EMB-135/145
A3007C 6,495 86 5.3 106.5 38.5 1,586 1L, 14H 2H, 3L Citation X
BR710-A1-10 14,750 86 4.2 134 51.6 3,520 1L, 10H 2H, 2L Gulfstream V
BR710-A2-20 14,750 86 4.2 134 51.6 3,600 1L, 10H 2H, 2L Global Express
BR710-C4-11 15,385 86 4.2 134 51.6 3,520 1L, 10H 2H, 2L Gulfstream V-SP
BR715-58 22,000 50 4.4 142 62.2 4,660 1 + 2L, 10H 2H, 3L B717
RB211-22B 42,000 84 4.8 119.4 84.8 9,195 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L L-1011-1, -100
RB211-524B & B2 50,000 84 4.5 119.4 84.8 9,814 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L L-1011-200/-500
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 142
143 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Manufacturer Designation Takeoff Flat rate Bypass Length Fan tip Basic Comp Turb Aircraft
thrust (lb) temp (
o
F) ratio (in) dia (in) weight(lb) stages stages applications
Directory of major commercial aircraft turbofans (cont...)
PowerJet SaM146 13,750 TBA 4.43 81.49 48.2 TBA 3L, 6H 1H, 3L Superjet 100-75B
SaM146 15,650 TBA 4.43 81.49 48.2 TBA 3L, 6H 1H, 3L Superjet 100-75LR/-95
Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 11,200 dry ? ? 138.6 38.8 4,234 9L, 7H 1H, 2L B707-120
DC-8-10
JT3C-7 12,000 dry ? ? 136.8 38.8 3,495 9L, 7H 1H, 2L B720
JT3C-12 13,000 dry ? ? 136.8 38.8 3,550 9L, 7H 1H, 2L B720
JT3D-1, -1A 17,000 dry ? 1.4 136.3 53.1 4,145 2F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L B720B
B707-120B
DC-8-50
JT3D-1 & -1A -MC6 17,000 dry ? 1.4 145.5 53.1 4,540 2F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L B707-120B
JT3D-1 & -1A-MC7 17,000 dry ? 1.4 145.5 53 4,165 2F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L B720B
JT3D-3B, -3C 18,000 dry 84 1.4 136.6 53.1 4,340 2F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L DC-8-50,-61,-61F,-62,-63
B707-120B, -320B, -C
B720B, VC-137C
JT3D-7, -7A 19,000 dry 84 1.4 136.6 53.1 4,340 2F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L B707-320B, C , F
DC-8-63, -63F
JT4A-3, -5 15,800 N/K N/A 144.1 43 5,020/4,815 8L, 7H 1H, 2L B707-320
DC-8-20
JT4A-9, -10 16,800 N/K N/A 144.1 43 5,050/4,845 8L, 7H 1H, 2L B707-320
DC-8-20
JT4A-11, -12 17,500 N/K N/A 144.1 43 5,100/4,895 8L, 7H 1H, 2L B707-320
DC-8-20, -30
JT8D-1, -1A, -1B 14,000 N/K 1.1 123.5 42.5 3,155 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L B727-100, -100C
DC-9-10, -20, -30
Caravelle 10B, 10R
JT8D-7, -7A, -7B 14,000 84 1.1 123.5 42.5 3,205 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L Caravelle 10B, 10R, 11R
DC-9-10/-30
B727, B737
JT8D-9, -9A 14,500 84 1.04 123.5 42.5 3,377 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L Caravelle 12
B727-200
B737-200
DC-9-20, -30, -40
T-43A, C-9A, C-9B, VC-9C
JT8D-11 15,000 84 1.05 123.5 42.5 3,389 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L DC-9-20/-30/-40
JT8D-15, -15A 15,500 84 1.03/1.04 123.5 42.5 3,414/3,474 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L B727-200
B737-200
DC-9-30,-40, -50
Mercure
JT8D-17, -17A 16,000 84 1.01/1.02 123.5 42.5 3,430/3,475 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L B727-200
DC-9-30, -50
B737-200
JT8D-17R 17,400 77 1 123.5 42.5 3,495 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L B727-200
JT8D-17AR 16,400 77 1 123.5 42.5 3,600 2F + 4L, 7H 1H, 3L B727-200
JT8D-209 18,500 77 1.78 154.2 49.2 4,435 1F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L MD-81
JT8D-217 20,850 77 1.73 154.2 49.2 4,470 1F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L MD-82
JT8D-217A 20,850 84 1.73 154.2 49.2 4,470 1F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L MD-82, MD-87
JT8D-217C 20,850 84 1.81 154.2 49.2 4,515 1F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L MD-82, -83, -87, -88
JT8D-219 21,700 84 1.77 154.2 49.2 4,515 1F + 6L, 7H 1H, 3L MD-82, -83, -87, -88
JT9D-3A 43,600 dry 80 5.2 154.2 95.6 8,608 1F + 3L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-100
JT9D-7 45,600 dry 80 5.2 154.2 95.6 8,850 1F + 3L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-100/-200B, C, F
B747 SR
JT9D-7A 46,250 dry 80 5.1 154.2 95.6 8,850 1F + 3L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-100/-200B, C, F
B747 SR, SP
JT9D-7F 48,000 dry 80 5.1 154.2 95.6 8,850 1F + 3L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-200B, C, F,
B747 SR, SP
JT9D-7J 50,000 dry 80 5.1 154.2 95.6 8,850 1F + 3L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-100, -200B, C, F,
B747 SR, SP
JT9D-20 46,300 dry 84 5.2 154.2 95.6 8,450 1F + 3L, 11H 2H, 4L DC-10-40
JT9D-59A 53,000 86 4.9 154.2 97 9,140 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-200
A300-B4-100/-200
JT9D-70A 53,000 86 4.9 154.2 97 9,155 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-200
JT9D-7Q, -7Q3 53,000 86 4.9 154.2 97 9,295 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B747-200B, C, F
JT9D-7R4E, E1 50,000 86 5 153.6 97 8,905 1F + 4L, 11H 2H, 4L B767-200, -200ER, -300
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 143
144 The Engine Yearbook 2012
Manufacturer Designation Takeoff Flat rate Bypass Length Fan tip Basic Comp Turb Aircraft
thrust (lb) temp (
o
F) ratio (in) dia (in) weight(lb) stages stages applications
Directory of major commercial aircraft turbofans (cont...)
B747-200/SP
RB211-524B4D/ 50,000 84 4.4 122.3 85.8 9,814 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L L-1011-250/500
B4 improved
RB211-524C2 51,500 84 4.5 119.4 84.8 9,859 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B747-200/SP
RB211-524D4 53,000 86 4.4 122.3 85.8 9,874 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B747-200/SP
RB211-524D4 53,000 86 4.4 122.3 85.8 9,874 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B747-200/-300
upgrade
RB211-524G 58,000 86 4.3 125 86.3 9,670 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B747-400/B767-300
RB211-524H 60,600 86 4.1 125 86.3 9,670 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B747-400/B767-300
RB211-524G-T 58,000 86 4.3 125 86.3 9,470 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B747-400
RB211-524H-T 60,600 86 4.1 125 86.3 9,470 1L, 7I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B747-400/B767-300
RB211-535C 37,400 84 4.4 118.5 73.2 7,294 1L, 6I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B757-200
RB211-535E4 40,100 84 4.3 117.9 74.1 7,264 1L, 6I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B757-200/-300
RB211-535E4B 43,100 84 4.3 117.9 74.1 7,264 1L, 6I, 6H 1H, 1I, 3L B757-200/-300, Tu 204
Spey 511-8 11,400 74 0.64 109.6 32.5 2,483 5L, 12H 2H, 2L Gulfstream GI, II, III
Spey 512-5W/-14DW 12,550 (wet) 77 0.71 109.6 32.5 2,609 5L, 12H 2H, 2L Trident 2E/3B
BAC 1-11-475, -500
Tay 611 13,850 86 3.04 94.7 44 2,951 1 + 3L, 12H 2H, 3L Gulfstream IV
Tay 620 13,850 86 3.04 94.7 44 3,185 1 + 3L, 12H 2H, 3L F100, F70
Tay 650 15,100 86 3.06 94.7 45 3,340 1 + 3L, 12H 2H, 3L F100
Tay 651 15,400 82.4 3.07 94.7 45 3,380 1 + 3L, 12H 2H, 3L B727
Trent 553 53,000 86 7.7 154 97.4 10,400 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L A340-500
Trent 556 56,000 86 7.6 154 97.4 10,400 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L A340-600
Trent 768 67,500 86 5.1 154 97.4 10,550 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 4L A330-300
Trent 772 71,100 86 5 154 97.4 10,550 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 4L A330-300
Trent 772B 71,100 100 5 154 97.4 10,500 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 4L A330-200, -300, Freighter
Trent 875 74,600 86 6.2 172 110 13,100 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L B777-200
Trent 877 77,200 86 6.1 172 110 13,100 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L B777-200, -200ER
Trent 884 84,950 86 5.9 172 110 13,100 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L B777-200/-200ER/-300
Trent 892 91,600 86 5.8 172 110 13,100 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L B777-200ER/-300
Trent 892B 91,600 86 5.8 172 110 13,100 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L B777-200ER/-300
Trent 895 95,000 77 5.8 172 110 13,100 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L B777-200ER/-300
Trent 970 70,000 86 8.7 179 116 14,190 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L A380-800
Trent 972 72,000 86 8.6 179 116 14,190 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L A380-800
Trent 977 76,500 86 8.5 179 116 14,190 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 5L A380-F
Trent 1000-A 63,800 86 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-8
Trent 1000-C 69,800 86 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-8, -9
Trent 1000-D 69,800 95 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-8, -9
Trent 1000-E 53,200 86 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-3, -8
Trent 1000-G 67,000 86 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-8, -9
Trent 1000-H 58,000 86 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-3, -8
Trent 1000-J 73,800 86 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-9
Trent 1000-K 73,800 91 11 160 112 11,924 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 1I, 6L B787-9
Trent XWB-74 74,000 TBA TBA TBA 118 TBA 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 2I, 6L A350-800 XWB
Trent XWB-83 83,000 TBA TBA TBA 118 TBA 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 2I, 6L A350-900 XWB
Trent XWB-92 92,000 TBA TBA TBA 118 TBA 1L, 8I, 6H 1H, 2I, 6L A350-1000 XWB
(*data correct up to 2009)
EYB2012 Directory Layout Tests_E2011 tests 09/11/2011 11:30 Page 144


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