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DOI 10.1002/mnfr.201200735

Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2013, 57, 802–823

REVIEW

Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects
¨ Birgit A. Rumpold and Oliver K. Schluter
Department of Horticultural Engineering, Quality and Safety of Food and Feed, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim, Potsdam, Germany Insects, a traditional food in many parts of the world, are highly nutritious and especially rich in proteins and thus represent a potential food and protein source. A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of various edible insects as derived from literature is given and the risks and benefits of entomophagy are discussed. Although the data were subject to a large variation, it could be concluded that many edible insects provide satisfactorily with energy and protein, meet amino acid requirements for humans, are high in MUFA and/or PUFA, and rich in several micronutrients such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc as well as riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and in some cases folic acid. Liabilities of entomophagy include the possible content of allergenic and toxic substances as well as antinutrients and the presence of pathogens. More data are required for a thorough assessment of the nutritional potential of edible insects and proper processing and decontamination methods have to be developed to ensure food safety. Keywords: Alternative protein source / Edible insects / Entomophagy / Food safety / Nutritive value
Received: November 7, 2012 Revised: December 15, 2012 Accepted: December 19, 2012

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Introduction

Entomophagy, i.e., the consumption of insects, is traditionally practiced in many parts of the world. Generally, insects were found to be highly nutritious and to represent good sources of proteins, fat, minerals, vitamins, and energy [1]. For example, a 100 g of caterpillars (larvae of moth or butterfly) was found to provide with 76% of the daily required amount of proteins and with nearly 100% of the daily recommended amount of vitamins for humans [2]. The energy content of insects is on average comparable to meat (on a fresh weight basis) except for pork because of its particularly high fat content [3]. Taking into consideration that insects have a high fecundity, can be multivoltine, have a high feed conversion efficiency, low space requirement, and are omnivorous in addition to their nutritive value, edible
¨ Correspondence: Dr. Oliver K. Schluter, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: oschlueter@atb-potsdam.de Fax: +49-331-5699-849 Abbreviations: nd, not detected; NFE, nitrogen-free extract; NPU, net protein utilization; PER, protein efficiency ratio; SFA, saturated fatty acids; UFA, unsaturated fatty acids
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insects can contribute to world food security and represent an interesting food and feed alternative, especially to meat products and fish meal. However, antinutritive components and harmful ingredients of insects should also be taken into account. It was reported that insects can cause allergic reactions [4] and can contain toxic substances [5]. The majority of the more than 2000 edible insect species (List of edible insects of the world (April 4, 2012), http://www.ent.wur. nl/UK/Edible+insects/Worldwide+species+list/) are collected in the wild up to today [6]. Therefore, little is known about their nutritive value. A compilation of nutrient compositions of edible insects in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of edible insects derived from literature and an overview of the nutritive value and risks of edible insects are given in this paper.

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Nutrient composition

A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions of edible insects as published in literature (based on dry matter) is given in Table 1. Mean values of nutrient contents of all insects belonging to the same insect order are indicated in bold. If necessary, values were based on dry matter and converted
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2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2013, 57, 802–823

803

Table 1. Nutritional composition [%] and energy content [kcal/100 g] of edible insects (based on dry matter)

Edible insects (based on dry matter)

Protein [%]

Fat [%]

Fiber [%]

NFE [%]

Ash [%]

Energy content [Kcal/100 g]

Origin

Blattodea (cockroaches) Blaberus sp.1 Periplaneta americana L.1 Periplaneta australasiae F .1 Coleoptera (beetles, grubs) Analeptes trifasciata2 Aplagiognathus spinosus3 Aplagiognathus spinosus4 Arophalus rusticus4 Callipogon barbatus3 Copris nevinsoni Waterhouse5 Cybister flavocicinctus4 Holotrichia sp.5 Homolepta sp.3 Metamasius spinolae4 Oileus rimator3 Oryctes boas (larvae)2 Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)6 Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)7 Oryctes rhinocerus Linnaeus (larvae)8 Passalus af. Punctiger3 Phyllophaga sp.4 Phyllophaga sp. (larvae)9 Rhantus atricolor4 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)2 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)10 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae; early stage)11 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae; late stage)11 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)6 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)12 Rhynchophorus phoenicis F (larvae)7 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (pupae)12 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (adult)11 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (adult)12 Scyphophorus acupunctatus3 Scyphophorus acupunctatus4 Scyphophorus acupunctatus (larvae)9 Tenebrio molitor (adult)13 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)14 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)15 Tenebrio molitor (adults)14 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)14 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)13 Tenebrio molitor (pupae)13 Tenebrio molitor16 Tenebrio molitor (Mighty MealysTM )16 Tesseratoma papillosa5 Trichoderes pini4 Zophobas morio16 Zophobas morio14 Diptera (flies) Copestylum haggi & anna3 Drosophila melanogaster16 Ephydra hians4 Eristalis sp.4 Musca domestica (larvae)17 Musca domestica L. (pupae)18

57.30 43.90 65.60 62.40 40.69 29.62 26.00 25.80 20.10 41.00 54.43 69.01 51.74 54.00 69.05 21.00 26.00 50.48 30.15 57.81 26.00 47.41 42.52 71.10 28.42 41.69 10.33 11.47 35.63 25.70 22.06 37.57 8.85 35.57 36.00 35.49 35.49 60.20 47.18 49.43 65.29 49.08 47.70 53.10 51.88 48.13 50.54 41.09 43.13 46.79 49.48 37.00 56.25 35.87 40.68 63.99 63.10

29.90 34.20 28.20 27.30 33.40 18.39 36.00 36.38 56.06 34.00 13.61 5.64 5.41 18.00 17.44 47.00 1.50 0.66 38.12 0.73 44.00 18.81 5.72 6.37 31.40 37.12 69.78 67.83 19.50 59.43 66.61 50.65 55.04 46.69 52.00 51.68 50.51 20.80 43.08 38.07 14.88 35.17 37.70 36.70 31.10 40.30 23.55 36.72 40.80 42.04 22.75 31.00 17.90 35.87 11.89 24.31 15.50

5.31 8.44 3.00 4.50 10.74 1.96 15.00 15.01 5.14 23.00 15.15 19.31 12.00 3.65 13.00 3.40

4.53 10.09 0.78 2.73 13.20 43.60 19.00 19.53 17.04 1.00 7.63 11.20 10.00 9.24 18.00 38.50 33.25 17.16 24.51 12.00 15.92 15.36 5.67 48.60 5.60 8.54 40.14 5.49 5.53 5.98 15.97 4.21 6.00 5.86 5.84 0.01 0.26 3.86 7.09 7.10 1.90

2.94 3.33 2.48 3.00 5.07 4.21 3.00 3.28 1.66 2.00 9.18 12.34 7.00 0.62 2.00 1.50 15.25 14.13 15.56 3.00 13.69 24.10 4.60 2.70 3.27 2.69 2.54 4.74 5.70 5.79 3.23 1.43 6.06 1.00 1.42 2.61 2.70 3.08 2.84 3.31 2.36 3.00 3.20 4.30 3.20 5.35 3.78 3.50 2.38 10.31 8.00 5.20 12.25 25.95 5.16 5.30 490.30

Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Nigeria; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Thailand; wild Mexico; wild Thailand; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; reared USA; reared USA; reared USA; reared USA; reared Mexico; reared Mexico; reared USA; reared USA; reared Thailand; wild Mexico; wild USA; reared USA; reared Mexico; wild USA; reared Mexico; wild Mexico; wild S. Korea; reared USA; reared

508.30 652.30

342.14

1.40 15.00 4.17 12.30 12.26 2.82 25.14 18.80 3.67 2.58 22.90 7.47 6.00 5.55 5.55 16.30 7.44 6.53 20.22 14.96 5.00 5.10 14.50 11.20 13.85 9.37 13.00 9.26 13.56 15.00 16.20 9.75 13.27

282.74 282.32

478.60

479.14

555.40 618.78 427.90 577.44 379.61 539.63 554.30 550.00

6.71 9.04 2.61 6.01 8.00 6.56 8.21 1.25

530.96 575.53 409.78 460.00 216.94 552.40

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wild Mexico.03 3.87 42.43 401.73 530.45 33.62 2.23 12. wild Mexico. reared Mexico.46 37. wild Mexico. Nutr.25 19.00 Origin Hemiptera (true bugs) Abedus sp.00 445.10 6.33 555.10 10. wild Mexico.24 30.40 16. bees) Apis mellifera (honeybee)2 Apis mellifera (honeybee)21 Apis mellifera (larvae and pupae)3 Apis mellifera (larvae and pupae)9 Apis mellifera (larvae)3 Apis mellifera (larvae)4 Apis mellifera (pupae)3 Apis mellifera (pupae)4 bee brood22 Atta mexicana B (ants)20 Atta mexicana (ants)3 Atta cephalotes (reproductors)3 Brachygastra azteca3 Brachygastra mellifica3 Carebara vidua Smith (female)23 Liometopum apiculatum H (ant eggs)20 Liometopum apiculatum4 Liometopum apiculatum (larvae.00 65. wild Mexico. Luctuosum4 Melipona beeckeii3 Mischocyttarus sp.99 542.79 0.71 2.00 41.30 3.41 12.00 481.00 51.87 36.67 0.00 401.00 50.00 535.00 9.47 18.00 13.21 41.46 36.84 37.65 2.00 22.68 46.86 1. wild Mexico.92 0.51 19.4 Edessa cordifera4 Euchistus zopilotensis4 Euschistus egglestoni3 Euschistus strennus4 Euschistus sp.50 40.00 4. 57.00 400.00 28.68 49.35 4.00 3.38 8. wild Mexico.00 25.26 6.00 622.44 566.80 5.08 445.67 45.42 42.00 10.00 3.4 Edessa conspersa4 Edessa montezumae4 Edessa petersii3 Edessa sp.01 3. 802–823 Table 1. wild Mexico.00 7.00 2.53 3.00 34.00 2.25 73.00 476.40 3.00 31. pupae)9 Liometopum occidentale var. wild Mexico.43 8.00 6.39 72. wild Sudan.19 1. wild Mexico.00 57.mnf-journal. wild Mexico. wild Thailand. reared Mexico.65 4.56 547.20 45.00 2.00 5. wild Mexico.00 4.00 2.33 39.96 42.00 474.00 3. wild Mexico. wild Nigeria.00 2.10 3. wild Mexico.12 15.82 37.90 37.00 3.00 498.00 394.50 3.43 4.13 35. wild Mexico.00 551.98 9.00 22.06 6.00 24.00 4.67 41.00 4.21 2.00 20.13 36.00 3. wild Mexico.4 Myrmecosistus melliger3 Myrmecosistus melliger3 Myrmecosistus melliger9 Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius (weaver ant)5 Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius (queen caste)5 Pogonomyrmex barbatus3 Pogonomyrmex sp.54 18.30 54.00 3.45 3.20 27.00 11.00 482.26 24.33 67. KGaA.12 4.86 2.60 22.74 394.88 18.00 3.00 0.44 2.00 2.56 3. wild Mexico.79 46.22 5.00 19. wild Mexico.90 9.07 11.59 19.00 5.00 46. wild Mexico.00 50.00 63. wild Mexico.3 Edessa sp. wild Mexico.08 1.05 522.22 17.00 622. wild Mexico.00 13.25 65.4 48.19 4 Axayacatl Belostoma sp.00 52.00 3. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.00 23.21 3.00 11.42 3. wild USA.00 29.00 42.53 34.00 59.05 1.40 346.00 57. K.33 4.20 9.72 14.14 328.00 21.30 9.00 1.com . Rumpold and O. wild Kenya.00 34.65 64.00 2. Food Res. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.4 Acantocephala declivis3 Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)19 Aspongubus viduatus F .33 1.47 4. wild Mexico.00 522.00 5. wild Mexico.00 11.57 11.60 56.00 3.26 6. A.83 3.00 9. wild Mexico.00 77.23 48.52 66.00 1.00 20. adults)9 Hoplophorion monograma3 Hoplophorion monograma4 Krizousacorixa azteca J (“ahuahutle” eggs)20 Ahuahutle (mosquito eggs)4 Meimuna opalifera Walker5 Neortholomus sp.00 41.00 10.00 49.33 1.33 3.02 39.99 7.00 20. (nymphs.85 3.804 ¨ B. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.55 2.50 21.21 20.02 6.51 77.00 3.26 34.00 13.30 7.00 43.00 14.41 18. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.61 20.00 26.08 548.00 49.00 470.80 15. wild Mexico.26 45.73 77.00 53.00 2.43 7. wild Mexico.00 30.00 583.45 35.41 2.80 2.46 10.51 2. wild Mexico.00 46.65 475.68 3.00 6.82 24.00 9.35 53.69 35.55 47. Schluter Mol.00 24.30 40.31 Mexico.06 11.20 4.00 6.45 9.00 3.36 469.90 13.04 2.52 37. wild Mexico.81 19.15 14.50 3.08 6. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.00 1.00 63.00 14. wild Canada.99 352. wild Mexico.00 33.47 21.46 45.78 18. wild Mexico.00 484.76 45.00 62. Weinheim www.57 21. wild Thailand.32 4.68 2.22 4.12 5.33 4.00 2.77 C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.00 3.3 Umbonia reclinata3 Hymenoptera (ants.48 4.22 19.82 20.68 400.00 391. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] 478.57 53.90 3. wild Thailand. wild 475.61 7.00 11.87 36.9 Pachilis gigas (adults)3 Pachilis gigas (nymphs)3 Pachilis gigas4 Proarna sp.00 15.05 1.00 54.00 7.09 12. wild Sudan.87 34.00 18.00 3.00 33.26 2.00 41.80 70.30 3. wild Mexico.40 7.68 29. wild Mexico.01 10.00 9.98 9. 2013.00 476.

00 2.68 2. wild Mexico.00 56.68 15.51 0.20 20.66 30.24 20. wild Mexico.00 29. wild Mexico.00 19.47 22. wild Nigeria.10 62.25 1.21 23. wild Mexico.10 19.00 12.10 19.16 12.00 12. wild Mexico. 802–823 805 Table 1.06 2. reared China.88 10.40 2.00 0.84 35. wild Nigeria.00 40.88 6.98 62. reared USA.00 3.00 10.25 42.00 3.00 2. pupae)9 Polybia occidentalis nigratella3 Polybia occidentalis nigratella4 Polybia occidentalis nigratella (larvae. wild Mexico.00 29.74 21.00 8.Mol.40 60.00 Mexico.37 22.38 40.22 4. wild China.80 55.00 61.80 4.09 7.83 438.85 58.98 20.16 3.63 2.00 31. wild Mexico.00 3. Food Res.63 45.00 29.05 8.36 65.00 2.60 1.28 9.51 3.93 455.60 5.00 6. reared Mexico. moths) Aegiale (Acentrocneme) hesperiaris3 Aegiale (Acentrocneme) hesperiaris4 Aegiale hesperiaris k (maguey grub)20 Aegiale hesperiaris (larvae)9 Anaphe infracta (caterpillars)2 Anaphe panda (caterpillars)25 Anaphe recticulata (caterpillars)2 Anaphe spp.00 19.00 63.00 36.00 419.53 6.00 4. reared USA.34 60.30 14.00 3.80 12.13 Mexico.88 40.40 61.mnf-journal.85 6.03 22.46 4.34 4. wild USA.30 14. wild Nigeria.00 15.86 2.04 22.55 29. wild Nigeria.00 61.85 7.20 3.36 66.00 3. 57.00 3.00 18.20 36.92 12.00 6.89 66.00 25.00 58. wild India.45 15.63 543.45 63.50 3.00 18.09 5. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.71 4. wild Nigeria.10 8.00 1.29 8.00 20.70 8.00 1.11 2.27 2.3 Vespula squamosa3 Vespula sp. wild Mexico.15 28.13 23.60 23.10 42.44 6.10 64.16 7.00 1.70 53.20 359. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.57 61.17 3.10 3.09 9.62 23.55 7.12 45.00 3.22 8.00 35.89 593.00 4. wild Nigeria. reared USA.00 2. wild Nigeria.34 7.76 33.00 59. reared USA. pupae)9 Polybia occidentalis bohemani3 Polybia occidentalis bohemani4 Polybia parvulina3 Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Zhejiang)24 Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Guizhou)24 Trigona sp.00 3.84 43. (larvae.02 5.35 38.34 30.66 32.00 1.60 20. wild Mexico.90 11.12 74.34 18. wild Nigeria.36 5.20 6.60 438.00 48.80 2.93 6. reared Nigeria.52 614.00 14.55 27.13 28.94 62.00 389.00 438.20 3.84 74.20 13.43 3.40 6.00 490.86 20.94 19. wild Mexico.01 1.00 30.80 494.00 356. wild Nigeria.00 3.00 18.76 21.00 6.29 5.03 52.78 3.00 58.12 11. wild 508.01 13.26 4.30 12.30 1.00 482. 2013. wild Mexico.00 1.00 3.10 1.70 7.35 20.5 Lepidoptera (butterflies.20 18.19 22.60 6. wild Nigeria.21 61. wild Mexico.10 1.98 9.25 33.00 7.52 14.07 13.60 445.74 46. wild Nigeria.00 462.44 5.60 23. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.40 6.78 47.23 2.20 35.14 6. (adults)3 Polybia sp.13 3.59 11.com .00 3.00 7.00 592.25 29.04 42.11 11.50 9.98 22.58 15.22 17. wild Zaire.40 28.60 46.66 0. wild Mexico.56 17.60 3.16 19.00 Origin Polistes instabilis3 Polistes canadensis4 Polistes major4 Polybia sp. KGaA.24 9.00 6.52 4.70 2.71 38.00 45.21 8.00 8. wild Thailand.00 17.36 11.34 34.00 6. wild Mexico.00 555. wild Nigeria.00 4.12 2.07 48. Weinheim www. wild Nigeria.10 28.29 47.24 14.55 51.40 41.00 61.40 38.90 25.37 650.12 3.39 607. wild Mexico.71 16. Nutr.76 69.80 20. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] 655.00 38.70 60.00 3.10 3.00 57.60 56.95 5.12 21.52 1. wild Nigeria.50 4.12 5.00 593.25 43. wild Nigeria.00 22.00 27.16 21. (caterpillars)2 Anaphe venata (caterpillars)2 Anaphe venata (larvae)28 Arsenura armida3 Ascalapha odorata3 Bombyx mori3 Bombyx mori (spent pupae)29 Bombyx mori (larvae)14 Bombyx mori (larvae)15 Brunaea alcinoe (caterpillars)26 Catasticta teutila3 Catasticta teutila4 Cirina forda Westwood (larvae)30 Cirina forda Westwood (caterpillars)26 Cirina forda (caterpillar)2 Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae flour)31 Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae)32 Comadia redtembacheri4 Comadia redtembacheri (larvae)9 Eucheira socialis4 Eucheria socialis3 Galleria mellonella (larvae)15 Galleria mellonella16 Galleria mellonella14 31.45 473.95 4. wild Mexico.20 2.00 610.97 1.80 439.15 1. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.00 466.73 58.00 52.4 Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosus25 Macrotermes bellicosus2 Macrotermes bellicosus7 Macrotermes natalensis Haviland (alate caste)26 Macrotermes nigeriensis27 Macrotermes notalensis2 Termes sp.50 504.00 10.00 11. wild Mexico.50 36. reared C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.00 21. wild Nigeria.80 41.52 64.4 Polybia sp.90 2.00 444.

00 Origin Heliothis zea3 Heliothis zea4 Hylesia frigida3 Imbrasia belina (larvae)7 Imbrasia oyemensis (caterpillars)33 Imbrasia opimethea (caterpillars)34 Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)34 Laniifera cyclades4 Laniifera cyclades (larvae)9 Latebraria amphipyrioides3 Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)34 Phasus sp.4 Phasus triangularis3 Phasus triangularis4 Samia ricinii (prepupae grown on castor leaves)35 Samia ricinii (prepupae grown on tapioca leaves)35 Samia ricinii (pupae grown on castor leaves)35 Samia ricinii (pupae grown on tapioca leaves)35 Xyleutes redtembacheri3 Odonata (dragonflies.36 12.11 2. Schluter Mol.80 4.60 2.55 9.30 43. & P .41 495.00 427. Weinheim www.50 17.00 550. wild Mexico. wild Kenya.25 9.00 10.98 2.10 61.70 77.00 3.25 61.86 7.00 19.11 3. adults)9 Oxya fuscovittata36 Romalea sp.96 75.32 16.00 63.80 7.98 42. wild Mexico.74 85.1 Boopedon af.60 5.34 512.17 54.62 9.00 10.45 3.99 4. Flaviventris4 Boopedon flaviventris B.87 29.00 4.00 4. wild Mexico.45 3.10 1. wild Ivory Coast.58 1.21 614.00 3.1 Cytacanthacris aeruginosus unicolor2 Encoptolophus herbaceus1 Hieroglyphus banian36 Idiarthron subquadratum S.79 9.50 11.25 4.33 431.10 22.00 41.20 75.93 2. wild Mexico.4 Melanoplus femurrubrum (nymphs.60 2.15 60.95 59.69 6.00 29.00 48.00 376.69 2.83 16.00 61.72 14.00 5. wild Mexico. wild India.30 72.34 1.20 7.36 1. 802–823 Table 1.38 25.59 60.60 54.50 57.81 12.19 Mexico.96 13. wild Mexico. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.33 9.80 4.11 10.96 9.43 11.59 62. 57.51 9.00 4.00 7.90 10.30 71.00 8.44 3. wild Kenya.36 13.16 11.25 70.92 6.08 18.93 77.2 Brachytrupes sp.10 64. reared Mexico.21 3.32 64.00 54.10 65. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.00 17.23 3. damselflies) Aeschna multicolor4 Anax sp.73 15.46 71.86 3.4 Spathosternum prasiniferum prasiniferum36 Sphenarium borrei B. wild Mexico. reared India.10 4. wild Nigeria.10 12.80 4.33 426.84 3.1 Ruspolia differens (brown)37 Ruspolia differens (green)37 Schistocerca sp.35 16.49 12.40 4.13 2.08 32.1 Romalea colorata S.00 3.73 6. Nutr.98 3. reared USA.47 64.00 361.58 6. reared USA. wild Mexico.00 14.30 35.85 45.08 16.70 8.61 65.83 293.20 48.13 58.14 3.97 4.05 2.79 2.20 26.01 4.75 55. wild Mexico.25 455. reared Mexico.3 Schistocerca sp.51 0.96 2.70 44.00 7.24 18.00 1.08 7.00 1. reared USA. wild Zaire.40 15. Food Res.00 513.72 22.72 45. wild Mexico. reared USA.85 459.55 19. wild Mexico. wild Mexico. locusts) Acheta domesticus (adults)16 Acheta domesticus (adults)14 Acheta domesticus (adults)15 Acheta domesticus (juvenile crickets)16 Acheta domesticus (nymphs)14 Acheta domesticus (nymphs)15 Acheta domestica L.93 13.03 9. 2013.81 4.64 2.00 11.00 7.00 21. wild Mexico.60 4.80 22.26 61.60 63.02 29.00 54.19 0. wild Zaire. wild Mexico.82 372.80 43.02 7.00 23.14 12.10 4.50 11. wild Zaire.60 4.20 6. KGaA.53 12.00 3.17 4.35 4.00 3.31 3. reared India.30 11. wild Nigeria.76 1.1 Melanoplus mexicanus4 Melanoplus mexicanus1 Melanoplus sp. grasshoppers.10 3.20 54. wild USA.34 30.06 48.00 8.98 2.00 431.98 4.00 10. wild Thailand.4 Orthoptera (crickets.90 3. wild India.00 566.87 4.00 61.1 Sphenarium histrio3 42.20 25.22 4.00 4.00 6. wild Nigeria.05 459.74 24.30 46.24 56.02 12.10 2.04 16. reared USA.12 3.00 29.00 4.00 13.35 10.52 53.20 26.60 3.20 77.00 77. wild Mexico. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] 513.00 512.00 12.00 11.14 3. wild Mexico.1 Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury (adults)26 Brachytrupes portentosus Lichtenstein5 Brachytrupes spp. wild Mexico.07 6.85 5.30 7.55 4.82 5. wild Mexico. wild India.35 77.10 7.00 21.90 62.41 17.00 363.20 17.22 61. wild Nigeria.1 Acrida exaltata36 Arphia fallax S.30 16.10 57.00 6. wild Mexico.17 26.00 12.50 4.41 3.33 16.49 7.95 2.806 ¨ B.15 8.mnf-journal. wild India.42 4.00 4.98 2.40 30.84 468.10 3.59 5.94 2. wild Mexico.22 14.26 3.69 461. wild Mexico.64 8. A.63 6. wild Mexico.33 4.88 63.46 465.05 20.77 6. Rumpold and O.56 70.56 64.17 10.22 11.61 1.00 55.85 4.00 776.01 7. wild India.42 10.01 12. wild Mexico. K.23 54.00 C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. reared India.com .00 762.38 2.62 4. wild 3.40 4.57 5.78 3.80 14.62 6.38 66.1 Conocepalus triops L.26 3.73 11.00 67.00 414.41 22.20 2.

47 2.e.51 8. 12 [29].52 9.mnf-journal. 32 [46]. the main components of insects are protein and fat.04 390. adults)9 Sphenarium mexicanum S.73 26.20 10. damselflies). nitrogen-free extract. 13 [8]. the average values of the insect orders including their SDs are illustrated in a verticalbar chart in Fig. 34 [62]. 10 [28]. 7 [17]. wild Mexico.1 Taeniopoda auricornis W. Orthoptera (grasshoppers.10 71. 15 [47]. 22 [55].40 63.25).1 Sphenarium purpuracens20 Sphenarium purpurascens3 Sphenarium purpurascens4 Sphenarium purpurascens Ch. For example. 1 [14]. grubs) have an average protein content of 40. n. wild Mexico. 2013.78 3.00 11.02 68.87 10. wild Mexico.15 62.40 2. Coleoptera (beetles.04 9. It can basically be observed that the composition of edible insects is generally subject to a large variation. 24 [9].87 3.63 8.78 4. wild NFE.59 2. In addition.60 65.97 2.78 71. For further visualization of the tremendous data amount.00 379.95 6. bees. Insect orders: Blattodea (cockroaches).20 29. C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.1 Sphenarium sp.. 33 [61]. the country of the insects’ origin and its upbringing (collected in the “wild” or “reared”) is included in the table.93 65.10%. locusts). 26 [2].36 21.00 10.20 3. 16 [40].43 404.50 56. the species of the order Coleoptera (beetles. 36 [64].34 10.20 5. 6 [19]. carbohydrates (NFE = 100% – (protein + crude fat + ash + crude fiber + moisture). wild Mexico.59 8. Figure 1.00 52. Odonata (dragonflies. 2 [12].91 12.80 10.00 4. wild Mexico. 3 [1]. Diptera (flies). 27 [57]. 57.4 Sphenarium spp. 9 [15]. 11 [26].4 Trimerotropis sp. followed by fiber. 21 [22].00 19. and ash in no particular order (see also Fig. wild Mexico. 20 [10]. Considering the average contents of the different orders of insecta.30 0. Lepidoptera (butterflies.41 10. Weinheim www. Nutr.95 4.56 10. crickets. 37 [65]. 30 [59]. 1).06 Mexico.02 2. i.00 2.20 7.80 8.00 71. grubs)..1 Taeniopoda sp.1 Zonocerus variegatus (adult)1 Zonocerus variegatus2 74.69% with protein contents of the species within this order ranging from 8.g.63 13.02 7.00 404.11 1. 35 [63]. Hemiptera (true bugs).com .53 11.61 2.79 3.20 67. moths).00 67. nitrogen-free extract.10 62.00 14.00 4. 14 [16].63 10.67 11.50 10. Isoptera (termites). NFE.65 14. Food Res.00 11. to the same units (e.75 11.50 3. wild Mexico.80 7.79 4.31 2. nitrogen-free extract (NFE). 1. 23 [56].13 65. 31 [60]. 25 [30].1 Trimerotropis pallidipennis4 Trimerotropis sp. 29 [21]. nitrogen content was converted into protein content by the factor 6. 17 [23].63 6. wasps).20 376.72 10. wild Mexico.Mol. 5 [13].12 5.85 to 71. It is assumed that this variation not only originates from differences between species and developmental stages [7] but also from different feed [8] and origins as well as differences in measuring methods.44 393.49 3. 4 [11]. 19 [54].80 5. wild Mexico. Average nutrient contents [%] (based on dry matter) of edible insects belonging to the same order.49 11. wild Mexico.00 62.34 2. KGaA. 28 [58]. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] Origin Sphenarium histrio4 Sphenarium histrio (nymphs. number of insect samples obtained from literature. wild Mexico. 18 [53].89 9.01 22. 802–823 807 Table 1. 8 [18]. Hymenoptera (ants.56 7.80 63. wild Nigeria. wild Nigeria. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.28 5. wild Mexico.64 16.20 3.3 Sphenarium spp.85 22.06 3.

3 for casein [22]. and Melanoplus mexicanus (all from the order Orthoptera) yielded the highest protein contents with 77.01 (11. and 58.00–73. and PER when fed to rats.13%.74 kcal/100 g for Phyllophaga sp. and PER comparable to casein [22].00–77. 12–14].34% [14]. A comparison of whole dried honey bees and honey bee protein isolate from the same source revealed that the removal of chitin via an alkaline treatment improved the nutritional quality of the insect protein as measured by increased protein digestibility.94% for Blattodea (cockroaches) and 10. The content of NFE.15–77.34% for Isoptera (termites) and 61.65% of all 113 energy contents of edible insects obtained from literature range above 400 kcal/100 g. and the cricket Brachytrupes spp. This was attributed to a bad odor of the silkworm pupae meal and the growth depressing pupal hormone ecdysone. Weinheim . ants). 2013.32–282. Furthermore. 10]. 9].31% for Diptera (flies) with maximum yields of 25. amino acid availability. (Orthoptera) with 0. Nutr. even within the same order as in this case Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) the energy content fluctuates considerably.8% for dry soy beans (Danish Food Composition Databank ed. C 2.5% of the larvae [23]. 802–823 Average fiber contents range from 5. high protein content of 63. 29. The average ash contents of edible insects vary between 2.00. or high protein digestibility of 98.00 to 776. 11]. The mean energy contents of edible insects range from 409. (Diptera) [11]. (Orthoptera) with 1.99% dry weight.92 [1.00. NPU. the ant Myrmecosistus melliger with 77. and 29. K. showed a significant lower protein quality than casein despite a higher chemical score regarding food intake.60% [1.09. However.13.85 kcal/100 g for Phasus triangularis (Lepidoptera) [1. By contrast. the energy contents of most edible insects are substantial even in comparison to meat which is due to the two major components of insects: protein and fat. It is noteworthy that the authors Banjo et al. 655.12% [10].00%. locusts). and the bug Euschistus strennus (Hemiptera) with 0.mnf-journal. a by-product of the silk industry. 57.00% for mosquito eggs of Krizousacorixa azteca J (common name “ahuahutle”.86% [8. 15].13% with maximum protein contents of plants (35. an improved growing performance and carcass quality of broiler chicks was yielded supplementing chick feed with 10–15% of housefly larvae. 16]. the protein content remained constant whereas its lysine and tryptophan content increased. However. amphipyrioides (Lepidoptera) [1].00– 1. damselflies) and 22. In the breast muscle of the chicks.61% [2. 15]. fiber but also protein contents. Food Res. Species with the lowest fiber contents include larvae of Aegiale hesperiaris k (maguey worm.30% [2.90–77. Considering the average contents of the insect orders in Table 1. 71.63–2.95% for Eristalis sp. and net protein utilization (NPU). The chemical score of the spent silk worm pupae protein was 60 in comparison to 100 for whole egg protein [21] and 55.01–3. and Comadia redtembacheri (Lepidoptera) with 0. 15] (both of the order Hymenoptera).06% for Isoptera (termites) to 13. Rumpold and O. Comparing the maximum protein yields of species of the order Orthoptera with up to 77. 15].56% for larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera) [17–19]. Sphenarium histrio. 40. The insects richest in carbohydrates are the cricket Brachytrupes ssp. 11. 12. The lowest ash contents were found for Sphenarium mexicanum S.30 kcal/100 g for Arophalus rusticus (Coleoptera) [11].13–15. http://www. the maximum and minimum energy contents found are overall outliers. The species Melanoplus femurrubrum.94 kcal/100 g for Ephydra hians (Diptera) [11]. [12] resulted in outstandingly high NFE contents in comparison to other authors and consequently measured low fat.1 Protein contents and amino acid spectra Proteins represent the main component of the nutrient composition of insects (see Fig. Lepidoptera) with 0. Consequently. www.32% for Orthoptera (crickets. 11. and 652. 21. a commonly calculated value representing carbohydrates other than fiber.01% [11].00 kcal/100 g for Polistes instabilis (Hymenoptera) [1].78 to 508.13% (Orthoptera) have been obtained with maximum protein contents of above 70% for four of the nine orders (based on dry matter).15]. A.808 ¨ B. 12–14].94% above 500 kcal/100 g.33% [1. and 293. in feeding trials with rats the protein quality of spent silk worm pupae.13% [11. varies between 4.88. Minimum energy contents obtained include 216. and 14. 79.01–11.00 kcal/100 g for L. 11]. Insects with the lowest carbohydrate contents include the ant Atta mexicana (Hymenoptera) with 0. 11]. (Coleoptera) [11. NPU. Metamasius spinolae (Coleoptera) with 0. This had been attributed to the optimal amino acid profile.33–85.00–4.89 kcal/100 g (based on dry matter) with maximum energy contents as high as 762. the quality of the insect proteins in comparison to other animal and plant proteins has to be assessed in feeding trials.asp) insects but especially grasshoppers potentially represent an excellent alternative protein source. maximum proteins contents between 56.11.63% for Odonata (dragonflies.84% for Isoptera (termites. larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera) with 1. protein digestibility. and the honeybee A.22% (Odonata) and 77. the protein contents of edible insects amount to between 35.2012). It is noteworthy that within all nine insects orders included in Table 1.dk/v7/fcdb_default. of the order Homoptera) [10. In feeding trials with chicks. KGaA. The honey bee protein isolate had a protein digestibility. mellifera with 22.com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. protein efficiency ratio (PER). the beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) with 0. 1). foodcomp.56% for Hemiptera (true bugs) with maximum yields for the black ants Polyrhachis vicina Roger from the Chinese provinces Guizhou and Zhejiang (Hymenoptera) and the larvae of the moth Latebraria amphipyrioides (Lepidoptera) with 28. the use of pesticides for the preservation of plants in favor of grasshoppers becomes debatable. Evaluating the protein quality of different insect meals fed to weanling rats it was observed that proteins from both cricket meals tested (Acheta domesticus and Anabrus simplex) were equal or superior to soy protein as an amino acid source [20]. Schluter Mol.73% [1.14. 7. weight gain. 282.62% [11]. Again the margin of deviation becomes clearly visible. respectively [1. respectively [1. (Orthoptera) with 2. grasshoppers.

0 69.1 27.0 76.5 69.0 43.0 62.3 37.5 54.8 42.0 68.6 20.0 102.0 56.0 18.2 45.0 51.4 55.1 47.8 98.1 38.4 82.0 42.0 55. USA.9 4.0 35.8 63.0 27. wild China.0 32.8 30.3 98.3 69.8 10.7 35.0 47. wild Mexico.0 7.9 38.0 77.0 58.3 19.0 63.6 156.7 130.0 49.7 51. grubs) Holotrichia sp.2 33.0 6.mnf-journal.4 15.0 80.0 72.7 51.3 47.3 10.3 36.0 46.0 43.2 27.7 11.7 80.0 74.6 50.0 9.0 50.7 71.7 180. (hornet grub)b) 23.9 20.0 26.0 43.0 78. wild 26.8 84.5 55.6 48.0 68.1 39.9 47.1 30.1 34.7 56.5 52.0 109.1 8.0 82. wild 43.6 154.1 51.6 58.8 24.0 53.0 62.7 13.0 33.8 122.3 70.3 77.3 28.2 53.6 118.0 30.5 109.0 48.9 48.0 45.0 33.2 35.0 56.0 60.9 22.0 42.9 89.1 48. wild S.0 75.F .0 64.4 28.4 90.7 31.7 42.3 23. reared USA.8 82.9 26.3 123.6 28.0 29.4 30.9 44.8 34.5 76.8 36.0 71.0 25.0 60.8 9.0 88.0 123.2 53.0 14.0 60.8 27.6 117.0 35.9 36.3 35.0 31.9 44.8 123.2 11.1 41.1 44.3 56.0 34.4 35.8 52.0 60.6 31.0 16.1 50.0 69.5 55.7 42.5 47.1 64.2 108. reared 21. wild Mexico.0 64.6 25.9 33.7 69.0 47.0 64.4 125.6 43.3 31.0 42.6 4.0 49.5 21.0 13.0 114.8 88.4 56.0 103.0 22.0 46.0 75.6 47.2 42.0 88.1 39.5 59. 802–823 C Table 2. Korea.0 29.1 53.2 51.5 52.3 16.0 30.3 76.9 16.7 33.0 3.0 18.4 51.9 77.8 65.0 55.0 66.3 14.2 51.9 5.0 126.3 46.0 44.1 6.0 61.4 40.8 104.0 89.0 41.9 74.3 47.0 28.0 38.0 10. Weinheim 45.3 44.0 26.8 53.8 8.4 21.7 97.0 6.0 21.3 34.2 59.3 17.0 6.0 21.3 58.6 137.3 74. wild Nigeria.0 53.8 16.7 11.7 82. reared Thailand.9 19.7 12.6 29.0 134.0 48. wild USA.6 45.0 24.0 107.1 55.0 78.0 69.1 60.3 www.2 7.0 47.4 25. wild Angola.0 45.0 43.0 76.6 Canada.4 72.1 54.7 34.2 58.0 46.6 7.7 8.3 78.0 49.8 65.0 54.0 54.0 51.3 24.0 43.0 58.4 74.0 44.3 69.8 53.9 74.3 14.3 81.3 132.0 40.5 24.1 12.0 40.4 56.0 41.0 32.0 43.2 112.5 74.0 40.0 52.2 52.8 34.0 20.2 14.0 53.6 18.8 26.a) Periplaneta australasiae F .0 62.8 17.8 26. Mexico.5 53.7 106. wild Mexico.0 55.4 53.0 63.0 6.6 116.0 18.0 10.0 16.0 21.2 62.0 6.0 39. wild Mexico.8 48.7 19.3 63.0 51.5 14.4 97.6 51.0 53.6 65.0 25.0 29.7 2. reared USA.0 86.0 45.8 44.4 12.0 60.8 88.5 10.0 30.0 26.0 Hymenoptera (bees.9 90.2 41.6 41.0 46.6 46.0 64.2 7.3 53.0 63.5 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.0 47.Mol.8 35.8 53.5 39. rear.2 47.9 45.5 45. Nutr.5 51.2 58.9 27.0 70.0 60.7 35.0 34.2 41.7 30.0 22.6 54.0 88.2 32.5 10.1 45.9 29.7 37.2 30.9 41.0 85.0 28.1 65.0 76.5 73.1 115.8 47.6 52.7 61.2 57.9 12.7 43.3 54.3 99.0 32.0 12.7 10.0 18.0 29.0 63.7 40.0 35.0 Hemiptera (true bugs) Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)k) Aspongubus viduatus F .0 33.5 32. KGaA.0 23.0 50.9 60.6 11.0 23.7 75.9 42.0 42.8 24.5 46.9 55. wild Mexico.2 85.8 49.3 165.2 56.0 36.9 43.8 20.3 6.9 15.6 39.1 49.0 56.9 61.5 92.0 46.2 7.6 27.0 12.0 43.2 6.1 3. reared USA.6 30.3 105.0 10.6 50.0 80.8 19.9 8.8 71.2 20.0 6.0 44.6 77.4 59.4 19.3 87.0 52.9 41.0 66.2 10.8 42.6 18.1 69.0 40.0 38.0 37.6 36.3 126.4 46.0 6.0 41.5 22.6 79. reared Mexico. wasps.0 20.3 23.3 52.2 77. wild Nigeria. reared Sudan.0 48.2 45.com 809 .6 39.6 11.5 128. wild Mexico. wild Mexico. wild Coleoptera (beetles. 57.0 35.0 48. wild USA.0 35.0 49.0 81.3 9.2 37.k) Hoplophorion monogramah) Krizousacorixa azteca J (eggs)l) 15.8 73.0 5.0 80.2 19.0 43.0 Thailand.5 55.0 43.0 60. 2013.9 35.1 35.6 7.3 7.0 35.0 38.5 Diptera Ephydra hians (larvae)h) Musca domesticus (larvae)i) Musca domesticus (pupae)j) 22. reared China.0 65.6 47.5 14. wild Mexico. wild Sudan.0 Leu Lys Met Cys Met + Cys Phe Tyr Phe + Tyr Thr Trp Val Arg Ser Pro Ala Gly Glu A origin Edible insects [mg/g protein] His Blattodea (cockroaches) Periplaneta americana L.0 45. wild Nigeria.9 137.8 41.6 15.8 78.0 53.4 18.7 67.4 20.0 166.0 10.0 6.7 12.0 56.5 50.0 81.0 32.0 76.0 19.6 60.0 25.0 29.0 9.0 57.0 23.4 43.5 57.6 17.7 Mexico.0 47.9 32.6 49.6 10.0 68.1 47.2 38.2 20. rear.7 31.0 35. reared USA.8 94.4 20.3 37.0 42.5 22.7 43.0 38.0 112.3 7.6 40.0 28. Amino acid content of edible insects [mg/g protein] Ile 29.0 79.0 20.6 20.5 30.0 66.4 13.a) 19.7 12. wild Mexico.7 49.6 89.0 8.4 24.0 24.0 89.0 29.8 56.0 42.4 93.8 39.8 39.0 135.6 32.0 50.0 57.0 45.9 75.6 49.0 40.0 30.0 57.b) Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)c) Rhynchophoris phoenicis (larvae)c) Rhynchophoris phoenicis (larvae)d) Rhynchophoris phoenicis (larvae)e) Sciphophorus acupunctatus (larvae)d) Sphenarium histriod) Sphenarium purpurascensd) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)f) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)g) Tenebrio molitor (adults)g) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)g) Zophobas moriog) 11.6 Mexico.0 6.9 100. wild Mexico.5 51.2 26.5 52.5 32. wild Mexico.7 53.6 46.0 60. ants) Apis mellifera (honeybee)m) Atta mexicanad) Atta mexicanah) Atta mexicana Bl) Bee broodn) Brachygastra aztecah) Liometopum apiculatumd) Liometopum apiculatumh) Liometopum apiculatum H (eggs)l) Parachartegus apicalish) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Zhejiang)o) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Guizhou)o) Vespa sp.0 7.0 35. wild Mexico.0 8.0 48. Food Res.5 58.1 60.4 18.5 41.6 26.0 49.2 87.0 25.6 42.6 61.6 34.2 6.9 31.7 16.0 57.9 29.2 41.0 19.0 40.0 51.0 77.0 38.0 104.6 31.7 106.8 65.0 103.4 56.0 107.0 66.0 39.

8 100.9 43.0 42.4 46. (larvae)a) Acheta testacea Walkerb) Anabrus simplex mealv) Boopedon flaviventrish) Boopedon flaviventrisa) Brachytrupes sp.0 43.3 21.2 41.0 57.0 74.9 74. k) [54].4 95.7 16.0 70. c) [19].0 25.9 70.9 57.2 76.5 53.4 17. Schluter 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.0 22.8 Amino acid requirement in human nutritionx ) 15. wild Mexico.9 60. Val.9 47.7 38.0 96. Lys.0 60.9 48.9 66.0 47.8 66. a) [14].3 47.0 33.0 32.0 23.0 22.9 59. wild Thailand.5 15.0 129. methionine.4 60.2 12.3 22.5 51.4 29.5 41.0 27.9 44.8 18.0 41.0 46. q) [67].2 54. l) [10].9 28.0 24. wild Mexico.1 11.0 127.1 5.0 34.9 52.6 37.0 31.8 53.0 61.4 70.0 63.5 14.0 7.0 13.4 86.0 33.0 47.3 63.0 89.4 80.0 77.4 41.com Ile.1 6.0 57.2 68.3 6.2 20.3 40.0 35.1 63.0 36.4 123.0 40.6 60. wild Phe Tyr Phe + Tyr Thr Trp Val Arg Ser Pro Ala Gly Glu A origin Edible insects [mg/g protein] His Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosusd) 51.8 56.0 107.4 53.0 7.0 28.0 29.0 41. 802–823 www.7 37.4 38.0 79.2 43.5 46.0 35.6 100. His.0 62.0 25.0 33.5 21.9 48.6 48.0 92.9 56.5 37.0 34.9 102.5 7.7 73.0 32. Phe.9 41.0 57.0 45.1 54.7 60.8 44.0 59.9 70.3 65.0 46.3 57.4 73.0 38.0 34.4 16.6 40.8 22.0 53.4 88. wild Thailand.9 32.0 43.6 75.0 48.0 40.6 22.0 8.0 12.8 50. wild Thailand.6 8. India. wild Zaire.7 21.8 59.0 3.5 87.2 102.0 41. wild USA.6 48.6 6.0 25.4 62.9 48.0 51.0 16.9 29.0 38.5 149.3 61.8 30.2 74.0 59.8 114.8 40.2 33.0 30.0 92. reared.0 49.0 117.0 28.0 24.0 43.9 29.0 12.0 10.0 41.0 42.9 46.8 Mexico.1 74.0 47.0 94.0 46.6 60.7 51.0 29.0 68.9 44.5 50.4 24.7 18.6 50.9 45.0 20. x) [25]. glycine. wild Mexico.0 59.0 37. reared USA.2 38.7 49.a) Sphenarium purpuracensl) Taeniopoda auricornis W.3 27.5 112.0 30.3 53. . d) [30].2 5.9 47.2 108.2 25. wild Mexico.1 94.4 49.1 37.9 15.9 62.4 22.0 115.8 61.0 43.1 16.1 23.8 23.0 95.9 63.0 5.1 55.5 46.1 8.0 48.5 25.1 56.1 48.8 40.0 58.6 14.7 114.a) Sphenarium purpurascens Ch.0 39.0 59.0 45.8 36.0 43.2 39. alanine.0 51.6 13.4 19.6 48.7 21.0 22.0 9.0 154.4 55.0 49. leucine.1 25.0 18.0 55.0 5.4 18. proline.0 31.0 6.0 77.0 40.0 43.2 53.0 Mol.0 35. n) [55].5 40.9 36. without hair)p) Ascalapha odorata (larvae)h) Bombyx mori (larvae)f) Bombyx mori (larvae)g) Bombyx mori (pupae)q) Bombyx mori (pupae)b) Bombyx mori (pupae)r) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)s) Clanis bilineata (larvae)t) Galleria mellonella (larvae)g) Galleria mellonella (larvae)f) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)u) Imbrasia ertli (caterpillars)d) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)u) Mellacosoma americanum Fab.9 61.9 36.3 73.6 36.7 72.0 36.0 35.0 30.6 34.0 122. Pro. cysteine.0 103.0 91.0 52.0 36.3 100.0 48.4 22. reared China.0 30. Weinheim 17. reared USA.3 91.0 103.1 104.2 67.7 51.0 48.0 40.0 9.2 48.0 10.8 52.7 26.9 117.0 41.0 58.0 30.0 18.0 9.2 62.0 30.0 50. Ala.0 11.5 28.9 46.0 34.2 3. Tyr.3 6.3 64.0 11.8 21.0 42.7 62.6 27.7 13.0 40.2 54. wild Sri Lanka.0 62.8 54.0 41.0 61.6 37.4 53. wild Mexico.5 47.0 33.1 48.1 75.2 38.7 52.2 66.9 43.0 76.8 52.8 26.0 40.4 77.4 40. glutamic acid.1 54.0 27.2 34.9 49. t) [69].0 41.1 78.0 19.8 104.0 59.0 75.2 46. (adults)a) Melanoplus femurrubruma) Patanga succinata L.0 26. wild USA.0 34.9 78.0 42. arginine.0 21.0 29.0 75.0 57.3 87.3 6.0 20.0 44.0 21.7 30.0 47.0 42. Cys.0 38. m) [22].3 86. p) [58].7 23.0 55.5 61.2 39.7 35.0 44.0 18.0 21.7 53.1 31.8 37.5 34.4 54.8 56.9 33.1 31.0 55. reared USA. phenylalanine.0 39.0 75.7 73.9 116. valine.0 8.0 54.7 41.1 22.0 45.0 15. s) [21]. histidine.9 35.7 60.0 68.5 29.9 36.4 54.0 46.0 57.9 62. Rumpold and O.5 34.9 48.0 62. 57.3 78.8 43.9 32.1 13.0 33. threonine.4 58.2 23.0 44.0 31.9 53. Arg.1 23.0 22.0 USA.6 89.5 8.4 22. wild Mexico.0 5. Thr.1 29.0 56.0 47. Glu A.5 60.0 88.0 24.0 28. u) [62].2 56. wild USA.3 12. reared USA.5 40.2 36.5 74.0 49.1 87.2 14.5 35.3 69.8 52.0 66.4 91. serine.7 45.5 57.0 36.4 41.0 57.4 83.0 37.6 87.0 35. K.1 35.0 26.0 39.8 9.0 88.0 50.2 45.0 18.3 121.3 51.7 56.0 101.7 71. KGaA.0 60.3 140.9 44.6 22. mealv) Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)u) Omphisa fuscidentalis (caterpillars)b) Samia ricinii (prepupae)w) Samia ricinii (pupae)w) Usta terpsichore (caterpillars)d) 17.0 95.0 3.4 6. wild Mexico.7 57.1 26.0 24.0 85.7 19.7 Orthoptera Acheta domesticus mealv) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)g) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)f) Acheta domesticus (adults)g) Acheta domesticus (adults)f) Acheta domestica L.0 13. A.9 16.0 31.0 68.6 52.a) 21. wild Angola.1 69.0 41.6 16.4 15. Food Res.0 166. o) [9].9 26.0 65.6 78.7 34. f) [47].9 68.0 6.1 63. wild Zaire.0 190.0 39.0 30.7 76.4 24. Ser.2 28.1 47.1 62.0 17.5 50.6 22.0 28.0 6.8 63.5 23.0 24.2 74. 2013.4 58. w) [63].9 23.2 64.0 69.4 32.1 56.7 Lepidoptera (butterflies. lysine.0 66.0 3.0 29.0 107.8 28.0 134.8 76.4 16.0 100.3 57.4 28. Leu.0 63.0 17.1 58.7 57. reared USA.3 138.0 13.8 27.9 40.0 18. wild Mexico.0 100.0 79.0 44.5 47.9 51.0 45.5 14.4 23. tyrosine.7 53.0 9.4 Nigeria.0 27.1 8.0 90.5 77.0 70.6 48. j) [53].5 14.3 34.0 62.2 46.8 7.0 115.0 82.0 14.0 70. Trp.3 54. g) [16].3 36.5 19.6 56.0 83.0 40.0 50.0 8.0 13.2 41. r) [68].0 34.0 61. wild Mexico.b) Sphenarium histrio G.7 60.0 39.0 0.0 19.0 35. wild Mexico.9 80.0 73.7 72.0 23. wild India.0 116.7 31. i) [23].9 66.2 6.5 53. e) [28].6 33.0 42.0 43.6 45.0 30.3 40.0 39.8 76.6 19.0 38.0 8.3 7.0 0. v) [20]. moths) Aegiale Acentrocneme hesperiarish) Aegiale hesperiarisd Aegiale hesperiaris k (maguey grub)l) Anaphe venata (larvae. tryptophan. b) [33]. rear. Gly.0 44.0 52.9 104. reared Thailand.0 41.0 14. reared USA.0 44.6 76.4 40.3 44..0 74.6 37.4 ¨ B.8 47.8 46. wild 15. reared Mexico.0 102.0 20.8 13.2 34.5 6.6 51.2 129.0 96.0 78.4 9. wild 23.0 60.4 31.6 36. wild Mexico.0 37.4 65.4 14.6 30.4 50.7 42.0 18.6 42.6 6.2 39.3 60.3 62.3 9.5 72. reared India.4 49.0 29.0 52.0 15.0 103.2 12.0 82.6 8.5 25.0 93.1 32.1 36.0 61.4 19.0 41. Met.0 65.0 49.0 60.2 67.4 22.2 39.6 139.4 60.0 76.4 20.0 21.3 17.0 57.0 41.2 83.8 47.0 89.2 29.0 4.1 102. wild Nigeria.0 29.1 22. rear.7 66. reared Zaire. reared Angola.4 80.6 46.0 31.0 64.mnf-journal.0 52.0 7.6 15.4 46.0 63.0 55. Isoleucine.0 60.9 51.8 81. h) [66].0 77.9 55.0 74. Continued Ile Leu Lys Met Cys Met + Cys 26.4 42.2 61. Nutr.5 18.7 6.810 C Table 2.1 95.3 38.6 28.9 53.0 45.0 81.0 44.5 105. reared USA.4 139.1 7.2 59.3 54.2 7.0 32. reared Japan.

40% for Coleoptera (beetles. Lepidoptera (butterflies. tyrosine. The lowest fat contents have been obtained for larvae of O. 57. (n = 4). Blattodea (cockroaches) and in some cases caterpillars (Lepidoptera) are also rich in fat with average amounts of 30. 2.50% (both Coleoptera) [12]. 26–29].00–77. 32. Tyr. lysine. larvae) of P.05% fat [2. instabilis (Hymenoptera) with 62. bees. 29. crickets. lysine. crickets. Trp. number of insect samples per order obtained from literature. 11]. The fat content also varies between developmental stages and is in general higher in larval and pupal stages than at the adult stage [7]. The average fat contents per order range from 13. locusts) in particular are rich in proteins and represent a valuable alternative protein source. Aside from the order Hemiptera being low in isoleucine. wasps). The fatty acid composition of edible insects as published in literature is summarized in Table 3. (Orthoptera) with 3.90. valine.13% [1. the fat contents of the cricket Brachytrupes ssp.mnf-journal.24–53. all insect orders generally meet the requirements of the WHO for amino acids. Mean amino acid contents [mg/g crude protein] of edible insects belonging to the same order in relation to amino acid requirements for adults [mg/g protein] published by the WHO [25].60% have been reported [17. tryptophan. leucine. Hymenoptera (ants. Val.78% (Coleoptera) [26] and wasps P. Coleoptera (beetles. Phe. Met. This could not be entirely confirmed. 13. locusts). 19. moths). larvae of Oryctes boas with 1. The amino acid spectra of edible insects are shown in Table 2 and the average amino acid contents of insects belonging to the same insect order are given in bold values and further illustrated in Fig. Diptera (flies). grubs). Ile. High values have been obtained for phenylalanine + tyrosine and some insects are rich in tryptophane. Again large variation can be observed. Cys. triangularis (Lepidoptera) with 77. it can generally be observed that all edible insects meet the amino acid requirements of adults for methionine and methionine + cysteine. In addition.74.2 Lipid contents and fatty acid spectra Fat represents the second largest portion of the nutrient composition of edible insects (see Fig. Cysteine.e. the palm weevil larvae Rhynchophorus phoenicis with up to 69. rhinoceros (n = 2) give a general idea of the margin of deviation of the nutrient components of the same species as derived from literature.. and 27. Food Res. It can be concluded that edible insects in general and species from the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers. and threonine. SDs as high as 31. Orthoptera (grasshoppers.41% for Orthoptera (grasshoppers. this distribution can be attributed to the partly low data volume ranging from n = 23 for Lepidoptera to only n = 3 for Diptera.com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. grubs). Nutr. termites (Isoptera). methionine. Additionally to the aforementioned influence factors. Furthermore. The insect species with the highest amounts of fat include the caterpillars (i. and with one exception (Diptera) for cysteine. locusts) being rich in protein to 33. most edible insects provide satisfactorily with the required essential amino acids. C 2. where fat contents as low as 19.12% [17–19]. The nutrient quality of the insect protein is promising in comparison to casein and soy but varies and can be improved by the removal of the chitin. Particularly the fat contents of the palm weevil larvae (n = 7).50% with carbohydrate contents of up to 48. Weinheim . respectively.66–38. 14. In addition to the fatty www. phenylalanine + tyrosine.00% fat [1].3 were obtained for Lepidoptera for phenylalanine and tyrosine (phe + tyr). 27]. and valine and the order Diptera being short of leucine and cysteine. and Brachytrupers ssp. 1). Since all beetle samples had been collected in Nigeria in the wild. 802–823 811 Figure 2. lysine. Insect orders: Blattodea (cockroaches). Comparing the amino acid requirements for adults published by the WHO [25] in mg/g protein with average amino acid contents of insects belonging to the same order. threonine. crickets. Hemiptera (true bugs). n. It was stated in literature that insect proteins were shown to be low in the amino acids methionine and cysteine and high in lysine and threonine [24]. Lys.66%. 2013. the deviation cannot be attributed to their origin.Mol.26. isoleucine. KGaA. phenylalanine. Leu. rhinoceros with 0. Thr. Amino acids: His. and larvae of the Asiatic rhinoceros beetle O. histidine. bugs (Hemiptera).

23 47.30 0.03 19.87 8.50 0.92 15.24 6.57 65.19 10. w Thailand.83 27.29 10.81 0.80 10. K.46 43.00 28.68 5.84 1.30 60.20 4.50 13.43 S.812 C Table 3.74 18. Food Res.08 2.71 0.50 3.50 1.30 49.21 0.36 1.61 0.33 21.21 35.10 2. w Thailand.00 0.00 26.63 43.70 35.75 nd 7. w Review Review Review 6. 802–823 Hymenoptera (bees. Weinheim 27.87 46.20 2. w Angola.40 32.59 3.80 10.20 0.70 12. w Thailand.40 34.40 0.50 3.82 0.25 27.75 18.00 35.09 43.04 9.49 5. A.70 2.20 2.85 3.59 1.98 17.80 4.91 3.43 22. r Review nd 10.53 3.63 43.00 3. (female thorax)n) Carebara vidua S.82 5.50 3.30 0. Rumpold and O.61 0.02 31.77 11. w Coleoptera (beetles.50 13.95 37.50 14.81 1.35 28.71 37.00 7.b) Onthophagus mouhotib) Onthophagus seniculusb) Oryctes owariensisf) Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)g) Rhynchophorus phoenicis F (larvae)g) Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)h) Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae) oili) Tesseratoma papillosac) Coleopteraj) Aquatic Coleopteraa) Terrestric Coleopteraa) Diptera Musca domestica (larvae)k) Musca domestica L.65 23. w Kenya. w Nigeria.92 50.30 31.10 31.70 12.40 36.87 39.31 29.49 Review Review 0.91 43.90 95.12 0.mnf-journal.20 28.58 0.08 1.35 18.61 34.77 13.78 8.10 13. w Thailand.31 nd 9.10 47. w Thailand.46 14.60 0. w Sudan.40 2. KGaA.20 18.70 ¨ B.46 0.77 25.64 0.32 2. w Thailand.18 35.51 32.53 34.30 2.53 0.e) Hydrous cavistanum Bedeld) Liatongus rhadamitusb) Onitis spp.00 4.80 0.50 0.24 4.39 38.00 21.10 0.10 0.29 26.08 1.04 1.89 30.00 34.55 3.90 44.86 nd 0. w Thailand.60 nd 2. ants) Carebara vidua S.70 4.40 nd 1.64 0.67 Sudan.63 45.20 25. w Review Kenya.72 0.05 34.54 45.90 12. w Nigeria.54 0.46 25. w Nigeria.60 nd 1.60 46.87 19.60 0.67 0.47 19.60 0.10 0.80 0.33 31.21 4.56 29.com .63 5.03 1.14 5.00 0.51 47.47 5.20 40.07 1.94 1.70 0. 57.28 0.40 0.96 nd 22.36 0.43 0.66 5.22 4.04 56.10 30.10 30.50 27.90 40.20 2.55 2.78 64. (pupae)l) Dipteraj) Hemiptera (true bugs) Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)m) Aspongubus viduatus F .90 9.26 33.49 44. r USA.20 0.23 15.72 7.00 0.80 nd 35.60 6.22 0. Korea.99 41.66 3.19 10.89 20.77 41.19 nd 5.00 14.90 55.51 51.10 33.50 5.59 45.24 47.39 43.44 14. w Thailand. w Camer.93 26.39 0.65 nd 0.70 32.00 nd 47.42 33.25 1.81 0.44 46.30 28.41 3.66 2.95 16.75 4.92 0.c) Holotrichia sp.41 31. Fatty acid composition [% fatty acids] of edible insects C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 Other SFA SFA C16:1 n7 C18:1 n9 Other MUFA MUFA C18:2 n6 C18:3 n3 C18:3 n6 C20:3 n6 C20:4 n6 C20:5 n3 Other PUFA PUFA SFA/ UFA Origin Fatty acid composition [% fatty acids] Aquatic edible insectsa) Terrestrial edible insectsa) 33.30 4.51 32.85 8.06 41.20 0.50 40.28 1.41 0.89 36. 2013. (female abdomen)n) www.67 38.71 12.85 0.00 5. grubs) Copris nevinsonib) Copris nevinsoni Waterhousec) Cybister limbatus Fabriciusd) Helicopris bucephalusb) Holotrichia sp.34 1.42 0.50 17.62 0.70 17.84 2.77 42.00 42.30 36.09 0.43 1.42 45. Schluter 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.30 56.50 1.50 0.10 1.71 0. w Thailand.27 2.77 3.60 22.30 27.18 44.27 37.80 3.81 40.52 0.42 1.79 0.67 21.39 9.73 2.06 28.41 33.12 16.91 nd 13.80 2.92 nd 1.47 37.40 66.41 3.84 38.16 53. w Thailand.34 0.68 28.40 3.13 12.39 28.60 4.20 41.86 2.27 43.80 22.67 3.61 0.49 3.49 0.62 47.45 3.19 1.37 Thailand.00 3.51 50.60 43.60 0.20 4.56 0.76 53.43 4.50 4.20 2.00 nd 41. w Thailand.92 20.26 0.32 1.50 3.47 41.50 0.52 0.94 1.50 40.30 53.15 45.75 9.83 0.40 0.25 0.10 3.51 3.76 0. w Thailand.60 0.60 25.97 1.73 2.50 52.18 12.86 0.02 35.60 6.68 36.72 50.28 2.70 2.26 4.04 10.29 28.11 0.83 3.50 2.85 51.52 0.24 41.21 17.88 34.60 22.20 2.10 3.56 7.52 0.90 7.99 0.89 33.11 1.45 0.m) Lethocerus indicusd) Meimuna opalifera Walkerc) Hemipteraj) Mol.53 0.59 3.70 28.75 6.90 48.73 2.96 36.06 1. w Thailand.53 40.90 1.63 1.72 7.89 21.76 0.96 43.20 7. Nutr.23 2.46 19.44 17.30 54.64 1.03 0.38 4.60 25.79 1.98 29.99 64.62 8.40 29.74 27.

90 1.20 31.50 5.52 3.00 0.72 1.08 7.93 5.40 2.82 57.37 29. a) [70].90 7.80 27.00 57.96 50. w Thailand.04 22. j) [74].08 31.60 24.00 36.89 0.10 0.30 4. s) [75]. w Nigeria.58 1.41 4. r China.20 0.57 6.02 46.79 6. not detected.52 36.80 37.20 13.20 8. C16:0.90 1.00 14. b) [71].70 5.30 9.10 33.97 24.36 30.20 26. f) [73].34 34.00 4.80 27.20 22. t) [67]. Weinheim 0.40 0.00 4.57 73.90 29.61 0.40 2.60 0.81 Thailand.50 4. moths) Antheraea pernyi (pupae)s) Bombyx mori (pupae)s) Bombyx mori (pupae)t) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)u) Cirina forda Westwood (larvae)v) Imbrasia belina (larvae)g) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)w) Imbrasia ertli (caterpillars)h) Imbrasia oyemensisx) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)w) Nudaurelia oyemensisw) Samia ricinii (prepupae on castor leaves)y) Samia ricinii (prepupae on tapioca leaves)y) Samia ricinii (pupae on castor leaves)y) Samia ricinii (pupae on tapioca leaves)y) Lepidopteraj) Orthoptera (crickets.80 26.4 1.25 0.50 26.33 6.46 51.30 25. o) [32].30 5.85 0.60 45.78 4.63 0. reared.30 0.20 <0.80 0.31 9.88 0.40 2. i) [28].40 5.10 11.10 72.04 3. stearic acid.88 46.6 3. Nutr.40 0.98 39.35 1.45 1.88 5. KGaA.10 1.70 nd nd 50.20 1.59 0.20 0.46 1. (queen caste)c) Hymenopteraj) 1.77 0.90 58.10 61.52 29.60 0.54 33.55 26.90 1.63 31.86 7. r 0. w Camer.80 35. C20:3n6 – dihomo-␥-linolenic acid.06 0.39 0.34 0. PUFA: C18:2n6 – linoleic acid.10 6.40 1.50 0.76 41.53 35.19 12.42 24.15 0.09 0.57 0.Mol.59 21.60 1.40 5. n) [56].58 nd nd nd nd 32.57 0. Food Res.20 8.40 71.32 20.45 31.30 nd nd 0.60 1.74 Carebara vidua S. (male abdomen)n) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Wenzhou)o) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Guizhou)o) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Zhejiang)p) Oecophylla smaragdinao) Oecophylla smaragdina F .19 3.18 2.. 57.60 0.11 32.70 23.10 0.90 56.96 45. h) [30].62 23. w Thailand.40 54.90 4.60 nd 1.80 26. C20:4n6 – arachidonic acid.70 20.50 31.55 34.74 5.00 34.18 25.36 16.97 nd nd nd 0.51 29.60 29.20 45.60 0.60 0.18 49.94 53.80 63.44 0. e) [33].37 30. C20:5n3 – eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).60 1. palmitic acid.55 0.22 34.10 0.28 Kenya.80 1.05 36.57 65. v) [59].00 20.90 53.00 45. w Review Nigeria.74 26. Ivory c.74 26.67 32. w Thailand.00 0.90 1.10 28. r India.60 22.71 22.83 18.38 0.99 6.90 38. w Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosush) Macrotermes bellicosus oilq) Macrotermes nigeriensisr) Termes sp.50 16. r India.71 0.92 43.60 35.10 3.61 2. w Angola.20 29.48 0.20 39.00 60.00 11.51 37.97 46.90 23.40 39.53 0.84 52.54 42.45 2.50 17. MUFA: C16:1n7 – palmitoleic acid.90 1.00 20. l) [53].20 nd 7. w Thailand.55 0. r Review 32.17 0.00 19.50 35.30 30. r Japan.10 1.80 63.60 0.50 32. w Congo.60 37.94 16.10 0.90 14.40 7.00 16.30 49.01 0.82 22.50 32.14 31.20 26.42 0.80 1.40 4. grasshoppers) Acheta testaceae) Acheta confirmata Walkerd) Brachytrupes portentosus Lichtensteinc) Brachytrupes portentosuse) Chondracis roseapbrunner Uvarovd) Gryllotalpa africana Beauvoisd) Homorocoryphus nitidulusf) Ruspolia differens (green)z) Ruspolia differens (brown)z) Orthopteraj) Dictyoptera (cockroaches and termites) Dictyopteraj) www.80 1.40 14.50 31.50 35. w Nigeria.60 1. collected in the wild. w. Camer.5 1.36 0.67 46.06 40.62 7.00 34. w) [62].47 1.50 <0. x) [61]. w Congo.26 >1.12 42.90 25.63 17.54 0.46 31.46 0.95 20.72 48.46 28.13 2. w Review Review Lepidoptera (butterflies.10 0.77 54.09 2.48 0.50 11.29 0.94 31..18 0.20 0.40 0.50 0.20 0.30 0.60 21.04 31.43 India. w Ivory c.90 31.61 5.60 36.22 7.74 41.20 0.20 28. w India.26 60.90 34. w Thailand.92 22.20 1.76 1.36 35.10 33.35 32. r Nigeria.40 68.65 0.61 4.02 36.73 0.30 21.67 29.99 4.56 4.27 32.86 22.70 36.75 27.20 50.40 0. w Thailand.61 5.10 4.39 0.00 3.25 37.38 0.62 0.16 46.43 nd nd 0.99 20.60 52.50 0.30 62. w China.21 21.70 2.66 1.30 38.76 26.40 34.00 0.94 nd 18.40 34.60 16.07 2.89 0.40 0.00 11. z) [65].70 7.00 10. C18:3n6 – ␥-linolenic acid.20 0.82 0.10 1.72 0.20 18.62 0.70 45.20 0.30 58.78 41.69 42.19 1.29 7. 802–823 C Table 3. w Kenya.40 43.27 0.59 0.28 5.12 1.90 0.10 0.70 2.70 <0. C18:0.20 8. c) [13].90 13.19 18.49 0.94 8. d) [72].60 5.30 34.30 4.41 0. Continued C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 Other SFA SFA C16:1 n7 C18:1 n9 Other MUFA MUFA C18:2 n6 C18:3 n3 C18:3 n6 C20:3 n6 C20:4 n6 C20:5 n3 Other PUFA PUFA SFA/ UFA Origin Fatty acid composition [% fatty acids] 3.62 0.49 25.20 8.10 0. w Thailand.36 32.67 44.23 10. m) [54]. w China.28 12.30 1. 813 . r Thailand.69 3. (weaver ant)c Oecophylla smaragdina F .89 5.10 0.04 38. UFA (unsaturated fatty acids) = MUFA + PUFA.44 1.83 2. p) [9].55 0..90 8.80 33.33 3.84 15. u) [21].30 13.60 2.65 0.59 38.00 24.20 4.00 26.68 15.50 19.20 2. nd.00 4.40 0.90 4. Ivory coast.63 28.27 33.27 38.61 27.69 4.93 17.00 31.20 8.40 0.15 6.33 41.77 24. w Thailand.59 1.71 31.40 33.2 0.80 45.50 52.10 3.01 0.55 43.12 0.13 2.45 0.00 9.02 7.20 0.88 47.50 45.48 0.90 23.50 0.34 3.22 44.10 0. r.10 41.49 0.97 26.23 0. myristic acid. w Nigeria.40 50. g) [17].50 7.90 0. 2013.70 3.20 10.53 0. C18:3n3 – ␣-linolenic acid.10 1. q) [17]. w Congo.70 1. w Kenya.30 27. k) [23].90 2.10 0.85 3.10 9.91 0.62 7. Cameroon.89 24. C18:1n9 – oleic acid..96 1.30 19.60 6.00 34.47 0.01 26. w China.20 0.com SFA (saturated fatty acids): C14:0.20 0.10 0.50 0.31 0.38 22.06 1.91 37.79 1.10 1. r) [57].05 36. y) [76].70 0.mnf-journal.49 5.22 7.96 0.c) 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.60 6. r India.36 nd 15.24 7.46 China.

they cannot be synthesized by humans [34]. Furthermore. i. Schluter Mol. KGaA. Ritter [36] stated that insects cannot synthesize cholesterol de novo and contain approximately 0. The average amount of SFA of edible insect orders ranges from 30. the SFA arachidic acid (C20:0) predominated with 38% [30]. a significant enrichment in lipids as well as in the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA of black soldier fly prepupae has been accomplished by feeding them fish offal as fatty acid recycling [37]. ⌬7-sterols in their diet. In addition. [13]. 57. and nonadecatrienoic (19:3) acids have been found for some insects. It is conspicuous that in all fatty acid spectra of Raksakantong et al.and ␥linolenic acid (C18:3). EPA) can be found in the fatty acid spectra of edible insects. PUFA. In addition.. Insects for the most part contain only traces of these two PUFA or they have not been detected in insects at all (see Table 3). analogue to livestock [34. The mean fraction of MUFA amounts to between 22.com . 36].e.1% sterols obtained from their diet. the cholesterol content in insects varies with their diet [36]. large fresh. The mean values for SFA.00% for Isoptera and 48. Yhoung-aree [33] observed that house crickets. the honey bee A. For example. Dihomo-␥-Linolenic acid (C20:3n6). but it could be observed that the average ratio of SFA to UFA on ranges between 0. MUFA make up the greatest portion of the fatty acids present in beef and pork.. In contrast. and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3. 802–823 acids listed in the table. (C12:0). The fatty acids of insects are generally comparable to those of poultry and fish in their degree of unsaturation. Weinheim www.” and “Other PUFA” in Table 3. The two main components of the SFA are palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0). However. heptadecanoic (C17:0). insects naturally feeding on diets containing other sterols than ⌬5-sterols lack cholesterol. Major MUFA of edible insects include palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7) and oleic acid (C18:1n9). mellifera are not able to convert the plant sterols to cholesterol. It has to be noted that. C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. as well as of the PUFA hexadecadienoic acid (C16:2n6). [17] determined the total cholesterol content of four insects consumed in Southern Nigeria and resulted in much lower cholesterol contents of between 7. This has been accomplished successfully for the Lepidopteran Heliothis zea. traces of the odd-numbered fatty acids pentadecanoic (C15:0). pentadecenoic (C15:1). arachidonic acid (C20:4n6). of the MUFA vaccenic acid (C18:1n11). scarab beetles (56 mg/100 g). A. raw eggs contain in comparison with 372 mg cholesterol per 100 g [38] more than three times as much cholesterol. This could not be confirmed.60% for Hymenoptera and the mean fraction of polyunsaturated acids amounts to between 15. eicosadienoic acid (C20:2 n6). Ekpo et al. however. short-tailed crickets. it was discovered that it is possible to circumvent the production of cholesterol in insects by replacing ⌬5-sterols with. 35]. ␥-linolenic acid (C18:3n6). Rather high amounts of linoleic and/or linolenic acids have been reported for the fatty acid profiles of insects in some cases [24]. beef and pork contain very little PUFA. Nutr. and scarab beetles have a fatty acid ratio of 1:1:1 (PUFA:MUFA:SFA) being optimal for an adequate fat uptake.g. and bamboo caterpillars. arachidic acid (C20:0).g. K. Bombay locusts (66 mg/100 g). it is mentionable that two fatty acid spectra derived from a review by Bukkens [30] and originating from Angola yield more than 100% which indicates discrepancies. In the cases where it had not been distinguished between ␣.” “Other MUFA. Rumpold and O. Yhoung-aree [33] studied the cholesterol content per 100 g sample (fresh weight) of insects collected in Thailand and stated that the cholesterol content was high in house crickets (105 mg/100 g). phoenicis. the PUFA linoleic acid (C18:2n6). It is therefore possible to utilize insects as food constituents being nutritionally valuable but low in cholesterol in human diets. for caterpillars (larvae) of Imbrasia ertli. Just like the fatty acid composition. eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9). heptadecenoic (C17:1).mnf-journal. and behenic acid (C22:0). docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n3). Some insect species like. total cholesterol contents per 100 g fresh sample were accordingly lower. a daily uptake of 500 mg EPA (C20:5) + DHA (C22:6) is recommended which can be met by the consumption of 180 g of oily fish per week [34]. MUFA. These fatty acids in edible insects were considered negligible and are summarized under “Other SFA..91 mg/100 g dry sample for R. Researchers also found small amounts of the even-numbered saturated fatty acids (SFA) capric acid (C10:0). e.43 and 0.814 ¨ B. For the prevention of coronary heart diseases. the data were entered midway of both table columns. e. and erucic acid (C22:1n9).95% for Diptera (flies) and 39. the MUFA contents are uncharacteristically low in elaidic acid (C18:1n9) and the PUFA contents uncharacteristically high in arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) but devoid of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) in comparison to data published by other authors. and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3. bees. and wasps) to 41. Food Res. As an exception.79 which is basically in agreement with Yhoung-aree [33] and clearly shows that unsaturated acids predominate in the fatty acid spectra of edible insects. Similar fatty acid spectra were obtained for some ants (Hymenoptera) with MUFA contents of up to 73. and the ratio of SFA to unsaturated fatty acids (UFA = MUFA + PUFA) for each insect order are indicated in bold. In contrast. a replacement of SFA with PUFA in general leads to a decrease in the risk of coronary heart diseases and the PUFA ␣-linolenic acid (18:3 n3) and linoleic acid (18:2 n6) are essential. the fatty acid composition of insects is dependent on the feed composition [8. but contain more PUFA [31].31 mg/100 g dry sample for Imbrasis belina and 22. This corresponds with the data from literature as shown in Table 3 where insect fat is in general especially rich in these two fatty acids.10% [9].10% [32] and PUFA contents as low as 3.83% for Hymenoptera (ants. lauric acid. Furthermore. The presence and contents of micronutrients has also to be considered.76% for Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Especially members of the orders Orthoptera and Lepidoptera were found to be comparably high in PUFA. ␣-linolenic acid (C18:3n3). DHA).97% for Isoptera (termites). 2013.

70 32. reared S.10 108. (larvae)b) Rhyncophorus phoenicis (larvae)c) Rhyncophorus phoenicis (larvae)d) Rhyncophorus phoenicisa) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitor (adults)e) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitorf) Tenebrio molitor (Mighty MealysTM )f) Zophobas moriof) Zophobas morioe) 61. Weinheim Nigeria.00 10.94 14.10 16. wild Sudan.94 210. wild USA.50 771.00 55.92 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.40 697.70 6.28 45.58 8.com Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Anaphe infracta (caterpillars)a) Anaphe recticulata (caterpillars)a) Anaphe spp.00 0.00 27.11 1234. wild Papua.04 208.95 140.00 830.41 401.40 122.51 6. wild Nigeria.75 7.56 0.41 3.60 11.00 Nigeria.10 8.20 2.90 332.28 44.54 221.69 10.h) Euschistus sp. wild Diptera (flies) Drosophila melanogasterf) Musca domestica (larvae)g) Hemiptera (true bugs) Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)h) Aspongubus viduatus F .00 83.33 45.00 685.86 0.61 5.mnf-journal.56 0.00 0.83 11.17 26.51 1021.70 23.30 102.00 79.80 3.50 1.00 517.10 39.56 50.10 11.52 7.70 35.00 70.48 51.00 1080. reared USA. wild Mexico.78 2.94 26.56 10.52 200.41 12.02 1.80 12.00 660.73 13.00 93.00 84.10 1.10 1910.c) Oecophylla virescensc) Onyoso mammon (ant)l) Polybia occidentalis nigratellai) Polybia sp.00 8. wild Nigeria.17 25.00 1.04 750.40 14.69 5. reared USA.00 42.90 14. wild Nigeria.00 57.70 336. Nutr.42 60. reared 132. wild Kenya.70 1.00 923.00 120. wild China.64 2.00 2010.00 112.44 763.00 1320. reared Kenya.24 280.57 40. wild Nigeria.00 101.00 759.78 1.00 270.80 7.00 1025.00 54.30 0.01 125. reared USA.29 0.59 130. wild Nigeria.90 32. wild Nigeria.38 174.04 0.41 317.00 118.92 1.00 180.00 122. wild Angola.00 30.00 1.08 108. wild Nigeria.90 5.97 2.15 6.10 125. wild USA.04 0. reared USA.24 1. 2013. reared USA. wild Mexico. bees) Apis mellifera (honeybee)a) Bee broodj) Carebara vidua Smith (female)k) Liometopum apiculatumi) Oecophylla sp. grubs) Analeptes trifasciataa) Oryctes boasa) Oryctes rhinoceros L.55 106.50 730.09 748.03 3.96 1.26 1.00 194.00 111.29 112.00 40.00 32.49 114.03 352.00 309.10 397.00 Coleoptera (beetles.40 0.00 21.01 10.64 44.10 18.28 8.23 20.60 761.30 2.00 136.70 30.40 1.00 53.90 0.i) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Zhejiang)m) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Guizhou)m) Isoptera (termites) Agoro (termites)l) Macrotermes bellicosusa) Macrotemres nigeriensisn) Macrotermis notalensisa) Ogawo (termites)l) Oyala (termites)l) www.54 166.00 340. wild Nigeria.56 10.00 5.65 13.00 30. reared China. wild Mexico.00 936. wild Nigeria.00 26.Mol.64 895. wild Nigeria.87 3.60 33. wild Papua.60 131.80 0.54 936.00 48.20 100.07 0. 57.60 93. reared 59.00 17.23 90.10 8.00 65.20 5.72 25.00 220. Mineral composition [mg/100 g] of edible insects (based on dry matter) and recommended daily intakes [mg/day] for adults Ca K Mg P Na Fe Zn Mn Cu Se Origin Mineral compostion [mg/100 g] based on dry matter 6.22 301. wild Mexico.58 47.00 1. wild 1150.68 0.60 59.68 0.00 982.48 22.00 1100.31 4. (caterpillars)a) Anaphe venata (caterpillars)a) Anaphe venata (larvae)o) 815 .00 126.00 180.10 0. reared USA.36 0.00 9.00 0.00 49.62 0.00 957.00 1.00 54.59 5.70 417.30 136.00 412.90 11.40 59.03 1420.50 15.01 5.07 1. Food Res.06 6. Korea.30 67.73 24.00 530.14 6.80 52.39 0.49 1.87 2.36 120.00 50.40 130.00 10.00 387.00 Kenya.07 0.01 2.26 161.00 17.60 1.56 2.08 0.20 18.00 1270. wild Kenya.18 63. wild Kenya.00 21.80 109.00 0.00 Sudan. reared USA.00 541.00 118.96 29.24 5. 802–823 C Table 4.10 140.00 562. wild 1159.21 204.90 Nigeria.i) Hymenoptera (ants.00 15. wild Nigeria.95 10.03 0.20 2209.15 1.10 28. KGaA.23 26.

71 2. x) [65].31 0.00 341.59 180. *Linus Pauling Institute’s Micronutrient Center (http://lpi. wild Mexico.01 2. y) [77]. Weinheim 102.08 2.90 241.90 37. 57.85 2.60 71. af.00 3340.80 74.00 174.30 3.00 1032.w) Zonocerus variegatus (1st instar larvae)y) Zonocerus variegatus (adult)y) Zonocerus variegatusa) Mol. e) [16].00 78.8z ) 11.00 532. u) [61].54 26.10 7.16 65.69 16.81 3.61 6.00 58.96 2.00 824.00 112. reared USA.30 5.40 64.00 183.00 1200.60 41. reared India.95 0.5– 58.08 USA.08 0.00 1024. wild Kenya. wild India.00 102. Continued 816 C Mineral compostion [mg/100 g] based on dry matter 1826.49 0.75 1.28 3.00 82. wild Zaire.00 23.00 8. Schluter 47.60 USA.00 229.62 1537.46 75. 802–823 www.00 532. w) [14].00 126.00 80.89 0.30 58.00 32.00 66.00 1348.9– 1.24 5.10 24. reared Zaire.00 26.10 11.20 700* 173.86 207.80 69. reared USA.79 1. h) [54]. a) [12].26 22.09 498. wild Mexico.92 1.00 7.30 0. wild Nigeria.61 149.40 296.00 210.20 391. wild Mexico.20 150.10 1126.00 9.80 2. wild Mexico. reared Angola. wild Angola.40 76.00 66.55 224.33 0.00 24.02 25.48 7.00 131.w) Onjiri mammonl) Osmilia flavolineata D.00 740.00 4700* 220– 260z ) 672.oregonstate.00 0. wild Mexico.70 370.00 18. not detected.69 657.00 27. wild Nigeria.00 306. wild Kenya.00 572. reared India.00 521.00 1142. wild Nigeria.24 12. wild Mexico. d) [28].00 196.00 12.04 65.39 139.00 422. o) [58].00 59. wild Ca K Mg P Na Fe Zn Mn Cu Se Origin ¨ B.53 1258.00 109. wild Mexico. wild 287.00 23.69 2.20 24.73 5. 2012)).20 4. Salinus B.77 210.00 44.00 1.00 13.67 600. reared Nigeria. v) [63].w) Ochrottetix cer.70 103. s) [59].00 29.15 254.99 64. reared USA.00 187. b) [18].70 1.8– 2.88 6.21 4.00 902.00 21.57 17.78 1. reared USA. wild Zaire.00 420. flaviventris S.40 48.12 62.00 ≤1500* 1300z ) 7. r) [46].40 0. t) [62].74 10.00 42.00 68.24 7.94 474.00 14. Brachytypes spp.00 76.89 32. wild Mexico.04 13.87 43. m) [9].00 19.G.90 100.00 8.44 435.00 184.00 177.40 25.50 27.00 88.6* 0.23 0.00 173.w) Boopedon sp.23 6.00 62. wild Mexico.20 71.00 64.91 29.59 274.00 nd 10 163. n) [57]. wild Nigeria.00 469.63 2. wild Mexico.00 37.00 589.00 32.00 259.31 5.036z ) Bombyx mori (larvae)e) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)p) Cirina forda (caterpillars)a) Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae flour)q) Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae)r) Cirina forda Westwood (larvae)s) Comadia redtembacherii) Conimbrasia belinac) Galleria mellonellaf) Galleria mellonellae) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)t) Imbrasia ertli (caterpillars)c) Imbrasia oyemensis (caterpillar)u) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)t) Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)t) Samia ricinii (prepupae on castor leaves)v) Samia ricinii (prepupae on tapioca leaves)v) Samia ricinii (pupae on castor leaves)v) Samia ricinii (pupae on tapioca leaves)v) Usta terpsichore (caterpillar)c) Orthoptera Acheta domesticus (adults)f) Acheta domesticus (adults)e) Acheta domesticus (juvenile crickets)f) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)e) Arphia fallax S.53 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.0z ) 2.00 16. f) [40].00 96.00 841. wild Nigeria.00 377.00 nd 1369.00 1.00 192. z) [41].00 178. wild Mexico.81 2130. Rumpold and O.14 1290. c) [30].00 910.00 680.00 426.00 552.00 16.90 700.31 158. (adults)w) Sphenarium magnum M.21 121. wild Ivory coast.50 0.50 543.00 3.60 26.00 120.22 25.00 766.03 0.42 870. Nutr.18 1.79 790.40 39. wild Nigeria.96 16.00 1.00 1100.00 2.00 20.com Recommended daily intakes [mg/day] for adults nd. reared Mexico.00 96.00 39.00 283.00 3259.00 33. 2013.00 761.00 39.00 574.40 1.00 120.77 1090.00 1562.edu/infocenter/ (as seen on September 18.90 4500.00 915.00 73.14 402.w) Melanoplus femurrubrumi) Melanoplus mexicanus S. KGaA.06 18.00 2030.00 21 800.78 3.11 5.00 182.00 140. wild Mexico.Table 4.00 44.w) Sphenarium histrio G.00 24.00 131.00 42. K. Food Res.60 USA.44 1107.00 98.00 120.00 730.40 17.00 60.00 17.54 2. reared India.06 1204.mnf-journal.97 3.10 7. i) [15].27 2418. .00 24. (adults)w) Sphenarium spp.76 75.00 7.68 0.w) Ruspolia differens (brown)x) Ruspolia differens (green)x) Sphenarium histrioi) Sphenarium histrio G.20 7.88 666.00 744.00 110.00 76.00 62.00 132.00 1350. (adults)w) Sphenarium purpurascens Ch.50 5.00 111.00 17. wild Mexico.70 358.00 45.00 25.00 90.00 584.00 9.00 88.10 7.3* 0.52 92. wild Nigeria.75 23.01 0.00 0.18 1. q) [60]. l) [39].00 515.68 9.02 265.73 5.06 0.48 2.0– 14.15 0. k) [56].00 352.00 31.00 957.91 0.00 424.00 134. wild Kenya.00 8.73 55.27 8.79 15. p) [21].00 32.00 32.00 160. g) [23].00 144.a) Cytacanthacris aeruginosus unicolora) Encoptolophus herbaceus B. wild 1. wild Nigeria.27 19.00 68.00 609.00 21.35 17.60 24. j) [55].13 0.026– 0.00 24.64 21. reared India.09 75.00 80.12 11.10 33.42 160.69 1.00 570.00 780.97 585.40 50. A.

Generally insects are low in sodium. most edible insects but the larvae of the waxworm Galleria melonella and the house cricket A. Only some caterpillars (larvae of the order Lepidoptera) have high-sodium contents per 100 g and in two cases even exceed the maximum daily uptake of 1500 mg sodium [30]. and chicken [3]. although a 100 g of edible insects generally lack sufficient amounts of calcium and potassium. selenium. Insects of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers. a daily consumption of 300 mL of this insect tea covers the recommended daily amount of vitamin C in the nutrition of adults. most insects show very high amounts of phosphorous. 57. pantothenic acid. It can be concluded that. shellfish) can cause allergic reactions. Since the FAO recommends a daily uptake of 45 mg vitamin C for adults [41]. Vitamin E activity had been specified in international units (IU) per kilogram. edible insects have the potential to provide with specific micronutrients such as copper. phosphorous. For example. It can generally be observed that little data on the vitamin content of edible insects have been published to date and that the available data are subject to deviation. antinutrient substances and allergens. A 100 g of dried insects also does not fulfill the requirements for the daily uptake of 4700 mg/day for potassium. some insects are not edible or not safe to eat [43]. These are caused by injectant allergens (bees. C 3 Liabilities of entomophagy Besides all the nutritionally beneficial ingredients edible insects supply. whereas the recommended amount is given in milligram ␣-TE (␣-tocopherol equivalent) per day. Food Res.Mol.mnf-journal. a 100 g of insects based on dry matter is generally rich in riboflavin. it was determined that the pupae of the African silkworm Anaphe spp. Just as it applies for plant and animal food products. edible insects can be utilized in low-sodium diets. locusts) could function as zinc supplementing food (ingredients). contactant allergens. all insects analyzed are low in calcium and do not meet the required amount for adults. domesticus [16. pork. cast skins. and/or ingestant www. inhalant allergens (e. Consequently. and ants). On the other hand. excreta).com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. and in most cases thiamin. Weinheim . contain a heat-resistant thiaminase that has been responsible for seasonal ataxic syndrome cases due to thiamin deficiency in Nigeria for the last 40 years [44]. vitamin C. In summary. KGaA. crickets. By contrast. locusts) and Coleoptera (beetles) are also rich in folic acid.3 ␮g retinol according to Barker et al. edible insects can be rich in vitamins but species have to be specifically selected for the provision of desired vitamins.. Although this could not be confirmed regarding iron supply. Nutr. insects provide with several vitamins. Only beetles and termites are generally low in manganese. a required amount of 58. It is noteworthy that true bugs (Hemiptera) and some species of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers. In addition..5 to 58. Since vitamin E does not only consist of ␣-tocopherol (1 IU = 1 mg) but of a mixture of antioxidant substances including tocopherols and tocotrienols with partly much lower activities. The required amount of iron is highly dependent on its bioavailabilty. the amount of selenium in mg/100 g dry matter is sufficient in all cases but for the termite Macrotermes nigeriensis. niacin. It is furthermore striking that most mineral contents of insects collected in Nigeria are comparably low which might be due to their feed composition.5 mg/day is assumed. and zinc. 2. wasps. Vitamin A values were calculated as 1U = 0. iron. 100 g of insects are not an efficient source of vitamin A. it has been discovered that insects just like other arthropods (e. In the nine cases where it has been determined. it was determined that an insect tea made from the excrements of insects contained up to 15. 40] would be poor sources of vitamin E. and 24 of 60 insects meet the recommended dietary allowance for adults. Of the 77 insects analyzed for their magnesium content. Again a large variation can be observed and it was so enormous that it was abstained from the formation of mean values. [40]. It can be observed that except for larvae of the housefly (Musca domestica) [23]. caution needs to be exercised regarding endogenous and exogenous risk factors of (edible) insects.g. Endogenous risk factors comprise for. 802–823 817 In addition to minerals. even assuming the determined vitamin E activities of edible insects are due to pure ␣-tocopherol. and the consumer’s age and sex— premenopausal women require more than twice as much iron as men and postmenopausal women—and thus varies from 7. On the other hand. However. Referring to vitamin requirements in human nutrition of adults (bold values in Table 5) [41]. It is furthermore assumed that the content of micronutrients in edible insects can be controlled via feed. However.3 Vitamin and mineral content of insects Eighty-five mineral compositions of edible insects as derived from literature and the recommended daily intakes for adults (values in bold) are depicted in Table 4 in mg/100 g based on dry matter. Especially species of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers.5 mg/day. Since no statement can be made about the iron’s bioavailability in insects. e.g. 2013. crickets. Furthermore. it is difficult to convert the data to uniform units.g. only 23 insects sufficiently supply with magnesium. Furthermore. crickets. edible insects contain in most cases sufficient amounts of manganese and copper. and the vitamin contents of edible insects derived from literature and the recommended daily intakes for adults are shown in Table 5. It was also suggested that the consumption of insects could decrease iron and zinc deficiency in developing countries [39]. locusts) are especially rich in magnesium.04 mg vitamin C per 100 g [7]. most edible insects show high zinc contents.. manganese. magnesium. only ten of 82 insects contain the required amount of irons for adults and especially the cricket Onjiri mammon and several termites from Kenya are high in iron [39]. and biotin. it was suggested that the content of vitamins in edible insects can be controlled via feed [42]. Furthermore. insects partially contain much more iron and calcium than beef.

00 15. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.44 0. wild Mexico.28 0.68 4.08 2.08 2.81 0.44 0.36 0. wild 767. wild USA. wild Mexico.61 6.18 0.62 0.21 0.56 11.80 Mexico.11 0.01 0. reared USA.25 16. reared Mexico.24 0.25 6.08 3.80 0.00 2. wild Mexico.85 1.45 Nigeria. reared USA.83 29. wild Angola.10 0. reared USA.06 1.mnf-journal.80 23.14 0.42 0.61 83.93 0.34 1.80 10.78 7.41 2. reared Mexico.15 14. wild Blattodea (cockroaches) Periplaneta americana (nymphs)a) Periplaneta americana (adults)a) Periplaneta americana L (larvae)b) Periplaneta americana L (adults)b) Coleoptera (beetles.18 0.19 0. Vitamin composition of edible insects (based on dry matter) Vit A [␮g/100 g] 8.25 0.29 2. wild Mexico.17 20.54 0.d) Polybia occidentalis bohemania) Polybia parvulina (larvae.42 8. wild Papua.10 15. reared Mexico.50 23.59 2. reared USA. pupae)a) Carebara vidua Smith (female)h) Liometopum apiculatuma) Liometopum occidentale var. wild Mexico.14 0.44 <2.44 45. reared Mexico.30 0. wild Mexico.13 78. reared Mexico.00 0.13 0.07 0.29 0.33 4.16 4.16 10. reared Mexico.00 32.03 36.45 0. Luctuosuma) Oecophylla sp.14 0.59 14. reared USA.98 0. wild USA. wild Kenya. Nutr.26 2. wild USA.34 0. reared Mexico. reared Mexico.20 0.38 3.41 23.14 1.15 0.41 1.67 0.26 3.00 18. 2013. 57.72 48. KGaA.15 36. wild Mexico.28 0.15 0. K. Food Res.38 0.46 0. wild Nigeria.88 3.64 4. wild Mexico.39 0. 802–823 Hymenoptera (ants.61 0.84 23.25 3.84 23.88 94.43 7.31 0. Weinheim 22.31 12. pupae)a) Vespula squamosa (larvae.09 0.51 2. wild Mexico.67 2. reared Vit E [IU/kg] Vit C [mg/100 g] Vit B1 [mg/100 g] Vit B2 [mg/100 g] Vit B3 [mg/100 g] Vit B5 [mg/100 g] Vit B7 [␮g/100 g] Vit B9 [mg/100 g] Origin ¨ B.14 0.72 6.87 77. bees) Apis mellifera (honeybee)c) bee broodg) Atta cephalotesa) Atta mexicanaa) Brachygastra mellifica (larvae.61 24.25 0.64 2.818 C Table 5. reared Mexico.18 0.53 0.63 3.01 0.com . reared USA. A.38 10.47 0.47 6. wild Mexico.58 5. Schluter 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.74 1.88 5. pupae)a) www.38 11.75 2.34 2. wild Mexico.16 Nigeria.25 0. grubs) Analeptes trifasciatac) Asplagiognathus spinosus (larvae)a) Oryctes boasc) Rhyncophorus phoenicis (larvae)d) Rhyncophorus phoenicisc) Scyphophorus acupunctatus (larvae)a) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitor (adults)e) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)a) Tenebrio molitor (pupae)a) Tenebrio molitor (adults)a) Tenebrio molitorf) Tenebrio molitor (Mighty MealysTM )f) Zophobas moriof) Zophobas morioe) Diptera (flies) Copestylum anna/ haggi (larvae)a) Drosophila melanogasterf) Hemiptera “Ahuahutle” (eggs)a) “Axayacatl” (adults)a) Euschistus egglestoni (adults)a) Euschistus strennus (adults)a) Euschistus taxcoensis (adults)a) Thasus gigas (nymphs)a) Mol.73 30. wild Nigeria.18 1.71 0.28 0.38 0.41 0.16 4.00 0.87 12.41 23. Rumpold and O.26 0.76 0. wild Mexico.

00 2. wild Nigeria.64 45 mg/day 1.15 0.33 1.04 0.00 280. wild Angola.49 144.46 32.30 5.92 0.25 5.5–10 mg ␣-TE/day 0. wild Zaire.99 4.98 1. reared USA.4 mg/ day USA.54 Nigeria.95 12.47 11. wild Nigeria.87 7.95 0. wild Kenya.c) Cytacanthacris aeruginosus unicolorc) Ruspolia differens (brown)l) Ruspolia differens (green)l) Sphenarium magnum (adults)a) Sphenarium purpurascens (adults)a) Sphenarium sp. b) [14].56 1. m) [77].56 0.33 9. wild USA.09 1.90 0. l) [65].78 2. j) [21].00 1.43 3.00 32.00 1.07 14. wild Nigeria.50 0.3 mg/day 14–16 mg/day 5 mg/ day 30 ␮g/ day 0.54 11.58 0. wild Kenya.1–1. wild Mexico.65 0.66 2.67 2.88 24.90 0.20 2.05 69. wild Mexico. i) [57]. wild Zaire.41 17. reared USA.76 3.00 0.11 2.27 0.74 0.95 n. 2013.08 1.47 23. reared Mexico.83 0.91 15. wild Nigeria.79 814.28 0. reared Mexico.02 0. wild Mexico. Food Res.74 2.78 3.92 12. g) [55].d.09 1.83 USA.95 3. n) [41]. wild 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.04 11. f) [40].40 2.44 0. wild Nigeria.73 48.00 509. reared Mexico. wild 81.48 55. e) [16].03 0.50 7.01 1.09 4.07 1.82 500–600 ␮g/day 7.40 2.00 41. wild Nigeria. KGaA.09 4.13 0.86 25.50 9. wild Nigeria.24 0.31 3.20 0.49 6.00 22.10 3. reared India.58 4.29 0.com Vit. Continued Vit A [␮g/100 g] Vit E [IU/kg] Vit C [mg/100 g] Vit B1 [mg/100 g] Vit B2 [mg/100 g] Vit B3 [mg/100 g] Vit B5 [mg/100 g] Vit B7 [␮g/100 g] Vit B9 [mg/100 g] Origin Mol. reared Zaire. Weinheim 17.97 1. (adults)a) Zonocerus variegatus (1st instar larvae)m) Zonocerus variegatus (adult)m) Zonocerus variegatusc) Recommended daily intakes for adultsn) www.47 0. 57.12 273.83 0.00 0.24 3.01 0.13 11. 0.98 1.95 0.50 0. Nutr. h) [56].31 33.17 2. k) [62]. d) [30]. 802–823 C Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosusc) Macrotemres nigeriensisi) Macrotermis notalensisc) 2.92 23.10 0.22 0.33 9.04 2.83 11.45 1. wild Mexico.20 1.10 0.44 0. (nymphs)a) Orthoptera Acheta domesticus (adults)f) Acheta domesticus (adults)e) Acheta domesticus (juvenile crickets)f) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)e) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)a) Acheta domesticus (adults)a) Acheta domesticus (adults)b) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)b) Brachytypes spp.43 7.49 0.01 8.11 0.56 5.02 47. wild Mexico. reared Nigeria. wild Mexico.46 10.52 2. wild Nigeria.09 0.99 51.00 210.2–1.41 2. c) [12].23 0.22 0. n. a) [78].04 0.19 21.d. (caterpillars)c) Anaphe venata (caterpillars)c) Bombyx mori (larvae)e) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)j) Cirina forda (caterpillars)c) Conimbrasia belinad) Galleria mellonellaf) Galleria mellonellae) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)k) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)k) Latebraria amphypirioides (larvae)a) Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)k) Phasus triangularis (larvae)a) Spodoptera exigua (larvae)a) Usta terpsichore (caterpillar)d) Xyleutes redtembacheri (larvae)a) Odonata Anax sp.40 1. vitamin.mnf-journal.76 4.55 0.63 0.90 25.00 1.96 32.85 11.90 111.51 0.96 71.01 0. wild Mexico.21 4.3 mg/day 0.32 46. reared USA. wild Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Anaphe infracta (caterpillars)c) Anaphe recticulata (caterpillars)c) Anaphe spp.76 4. wild Nigeria.05 24.22 <5.26 0.Table 5.59 1. reared USA. 819 .64 29.10 0. wild Nigeria.89 350.59 0. reared Mexico. reared Nigeria.00 63. wild Mexico.26 1.

K. O. M. Food Insects Newsl. iron. 50. Perez. visual disturbance. In addition. J. A. Burkholder. S. Finke [47] estimated the chitin content in seven commercially reared edible insects and came to the conclusion that the chitin content of these insects amounted to 2. e. Bangkok. and stored whole edible insects and observed that sporeforming bacteria enduring a boiling step could represent a safety problem in entomophagy. pantothenic acid.. Nopparat. Mexico. Food Insects Newsl. KGaA. [3] Sirimungkararat. 1997. J. 142–157. and rich in several micronutrients such as copper. V. 5 References [1] Ramos-Elorduy. Prado. it has to be kept in mind that the nutrient composition of insects is highly dependent on the feed. Since contactant and inhalant allergens predominate in insects. Ofuya. 2009. 8. 6.g.. and antinutrients should be investigated further. Shono. phosphorous. Sequestered plant toxins and insect palatability.. Ekop et al. It can be concluded that investigations of the microbial contamination of edible insects as well as of the native intestinal microbiota illustrate the potential microbial threat of entomophagy and urge that the decontamination methods and shelf life stability of each edible insect product need to be ensured in order to obtain marketability and food safety.. processed. but caution is nevertheless advised regarding allergic reactions at the first consumption of edible insects. or worse [5. and Staphylococcus aureus as well as nonpathogenic Bacillus species [27]. Proceedings of 17th Session of the FAO/WHO Coordinating Committee for Asia (CCASIA). Because of the potential microbial threat as well as the rapid spoilage of raw edible insects. [2] Agbidye. Johnson. (Eds. Rumpold and O. Food Res. Leslie. it has been acknowledged that chitosan/chitin can be digested by humans. [4] Phillips. as a chemical defense mechanism against insectivores. magnesium. 2013.g.6–137. 802–823 allergens. R. 1995. biotin. 57.. allergenic or antinutrient substances incorporated in insects.. Nutritional value of edible insects from the State of Oaxaca. [6] Laos. R. S.mnf-journal. It was also reported that insects harvested in the wild that are usually safe to eat contain pesticides when they have fed in pesticide-treated areas [49]. This possibly also opens up opportunities for regulation. T.. pp. Natongkham. J. M. 10. D. W.. manganese. allergens. Schluter Mol. K. A. Although antinutrient substance do not appear to be of consequence. oxalate. enrichment. 1993. Moreover. In addition to the nutrient profile.2 mg/ kg based on dry matter. and zinc as well as riboflavin. In addition to toxic. Anal. [52] investigated the microbiological aspects of three fresh. mineral and vitamin content of edible insects are necessary for a more profound statement on their nutritional value. B. 189–200. However.820 ¨ B.7–49. The authors have declared no conflict of interest. Since chitinolytic enzymes produced by bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans have been found [48]. Klunder et al. P . 51]. decontamination methods and storage conditions have to be evaluated and developed. In addition. M.. Nutr. Forest Insects as Food: Humans Bite Back. An investigation of the microbial fauna on the body surface as well as the gut of the beetle Oryctes monocerus revealed the presence of the pathogens Bacillus cereus. Weinheim . e. More research is required on the quality of insect proteins in order to be able to fully assess its value in comparison to plant proteins as well as other animal proteins and more data. and tannin in four insects species but found generally low levels of those four antinutrients that were far below the toxic levels for human consumption. www. in: Durst. Consumption of these insects can lead to nausea. J. are high in MUFA and/or PUFA. Akindele. Reports of cases of botulism. thorough knowledge of the toxic and allergenic potenC tial of edible insects is mandatory before their application in food. 1–2.. and in some cases folic acid.8 mg/kg based on fresh weight or 11.... parasitoses.. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. due to aflatoxins caused by entomophagy [49] illustrate the importance of food safety and decontamination regarding edible insects. 1. FAO. phytate. more data are required on this subject. and addition of certain food ingredients such as the ␻-3-fatty acids DHA and EPA via feed. I. E. selenium..). Nutr. cyanogenic or cardiac glucosides. et al. the health hazards from insect allergens prevail for personnel of the insect rearing industry [4]. 917–922. Marketability and nutritional qualities of some edible forest insects in Benue State. However. steroids or pederin. Nigeria. meet amino acid requirements for humans. Allergies related to food insect production and consumption. Thailand 2010. Agenda item 13: comments of Lao PDR: proposal for the new work and development of regional standard for edible crickets and their products (CRD 8). 4 Conclusion and future research It can generally be concluded that edible insects are a potential food and protein source since they have high energy and protein contents. [45] investigated the content of the antinutrients hydrocyanide. J. controlled feeding of edible insects with nontoxic plants eliminates the risk of sequestering and pesticide uptake. T. This was in agreement with an antinutritional analysis of larvae of Cirina forda (Westwood) yielding in levels of oxalate and phytic acid within nutritionally accepted values and in no tannin [46]. N. vomiting.com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Moreno. extrinsic factors have to be considered as well. W.. Food Compos.. storage in a refrigerator subsequent to the thermal treatment is advised to delay microbial spoilage during storage.. 4.. 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